Volcano-blasted Herculaneum Roman Soldier Tells His Ancient Secrets

Volcano-blasted Herculaneum Roman Soldier Tells His Ancient Secrets

Archaeologists in Italy are studying the remains of a Roman soldier who was thrust face-first into the sand at Herculaneum when Mount Vesuvius erupted on October 24th 79 AD. The presence of this particular Roman soldier suggests hundreds of ancient Romans fleeing the eruption of Vesuvius were only minutes away from being rescued on a boat, but they all perished. Who was this man, and why do archaeologists hold him as being more important than the hundreds of other bodies discovered on hell’s own beach in ancient Herculaneum so long ago?

Wandering In The Footsteps of An Elite Roman Soldier

Herculaneum is a protected UNESCO beach that was buried along with Pompeii during the eruption of Mount Vesuvius on October 24th 79 AD. Archaeological work at this site began 40 years ago when the remains of 300 people were found on the beach.

Late last year I wrote about a current archaeological project that aims to restore Herculaneum. Once the planned works are complete visitors will be able to stroll along the sands in the footsteps of the elite Romans who all perished in the lethal forces of nature that flattened the entire region in 79 AD.

Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 1631 near Naples, Italy from an ancient 17th-century painting by Giovanni Battista Passeri. ( scaliger / Adobe Stock)

One of the most perplexing questions about the Mount Vesuvius explosion is why so many people lived on the side of a sleeping geological monster? Well, like today, in the ancient world people were bonded to their ancestral territories and for thousands of years the slopes of the volcano had been farmed.

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Nobody at that time would have associated the increasing tremors and smoking mountain peak as a sign of impending disaster, so, everyone in the region was taken by surprise and for the most part vaporized soon after the volcano erupted.

A bag with tools, on the Roman soldier’s back below his skull, was also found with the skeleton of the Roman soldier. (Parco Archeologico Di Ercolano)

Reinterpreting The Beached Old Roman Soldier

In BBC2's 2013 documentary The Other Pompeii: Life and Death in Herculaneum , presenter Wallace-Hadrill told the story of the tragic event of 79 AD. “We all make the mistake of seeing ancient Roman society as comprising of only rich and poor people,” said Hadrill, but “Herculaneum gives us back the middle people – and they are extraordinary,” said the presenter.

Now, Francesco Sirano, Herculaneum Archaeological (Parco Archeologico Di Ercolano) Park Director, has told reporters at ANSA that one of the 79 AD victims that was unearthed during the first excavation at Herculaneum and identified as a soldier, “may have had a much more important role.”

After the pyroclastic surges swept down the crumbling sides of Mount Vesuvius engulfing farmhouses, animals and people, a surge of gritty hot air blasted the luxury resort of Herculaneum at around 80-100 kilometers per hour (50-62 miles per hour). This pushed many people into the sea and hundreds of Herculaneum residents took temporary refuge inside storage containers ( fornixes), which were normally used for stowing nets and fishing equipment on the beach.

The sword, dagger and belt found next to the Roman soldier of Herculaneum. (Luciano Pedicini / Parco Archeologico Di Ercolano)

Putting New Clothes On Old Roman Soldier Bones

Returning to our story, Sirano explained that the man discovered during the first excavation of the beach “might have been a navy officer of the legendary rescue fleet launched by Pliny the Elder in the Bay of Naples after the explosion.”

A bone analysis of the Roman soldier determined he was aged between 40 and 45 and that he was healthy and used to physical activity.

  • The Illustrious Life of Pliny the Elder, Ancient Historian and Roman Commander
  • Deadly Volcanoes: The Eruptions that Reshaped the World and Became Legends – Part I

Archaeologists at Herculaneum have been fortunate enough to have discovered organic materials, and the man’s skeleton was found with fragments of armor and a rectangular shoulder bag that contained a collection of small handheld carpentry tools.

Furthermore, the soldier/sailor wore a precious dagger and a leather belt with silver and gold plates from which a sword hung, with a finely designed ivory hilt.

Beside the man, buried in sand, the researchers discovered “12 silver and two gold denarii” which equates to the monthly wages of a Pretorian Guard, according to site Director Francesco Sirano.

While Sirano is convinced the man was part of the rescue fleet sent out after the explosion he adds that it might have been the case that he was a different type of soldier.

So, the next phase of restoration work will focus on the recovered weapons of the Herculaneum beach soldier, and this is hoped to determine his rank and file once and for all.

Bronze Age Cataclysmic Comet Responsible For The Sea People

The Late Bronze Age collapse of the 12th century BC is one of the greatest and most enduring puzzles of Mediterranean archaeology. A cosmopolitan age, perhaps one of the first true episodes of globalization in human history, which saw the rise of the first historical empires of Egypt and Babylon, as well as the apogee of the Hittite, Minoan and Mycenean civilizations, came within a few years to a sudden and fiery end. At the same time, a mysterious coalition of peoples, known from contemporary Egyptian inscriptions as the Sea Peoples , appeared on the coasts of Europe, Egypt and the Levant, wreaking havoc on every city or village that they found along their path. Many believe this was the origin of Plato’s story of Atlantis, as retold to Solon by the learned priests of Sais: That of a mighty power that came forth out of the Atlantic Ocean to subdue all of Europe and Africa, as far as Egypt.

Invasions, population movements and destruction during the collapse of the Bronze Age, c. 1200 BC derived from Atlas of World History (2002) ( Alexikoua / CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Generations of historians have since established a direct connection between the Sea Peoples invasions and the Late Bronze Age collapse. In history, as in many other disciplines, however, correlation does not always mean causation. What then was the role of the mysterious Sea Peoples in the Bronze Age collapse? And from whence did they come to the coasts of Italy, Greece, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon and Turkey?

A gateway into the fortified Philistine citadel of Megiddo, in present-day Israel. (Image: © Marco M. Vigato)

The Pyramid as a Source of Light

Light can be created by any system if it can emit charged particles into the ionosphere. The Aurora Borealis is the phenomena caused by the same process in which where electrons created by the sun collide with air molecules to create light. So, what would it take for the Great Pyramid of Giza to create similar light?

First, let’s talk about the construction material used in the Great Pyramid of Giza. If in the ancient past someone decided to build a system to emit electrons and create light, the person would definitely face a dilemma with the choice of construction materials. To accomplish that goal, high conductivity material at high frequency is needed. Copper has excellent conductivity and we know Ancient Egyptians had it in their toolbox, though at high frequency copper would overheat and melt within a few seconds. What other materials could be used?

Great Pyramid of Giza in the rays of the sun. ( CC BY SA 3.0 )

Nummulitic limestone from the Abu Rawash area was analyzed by the National Research Center of Cairo. It was found its conductance improves at higher frequency – to the point where it is exceptional. If the conductivity of a material needs to be about 600 Tera Hz, in addition to structurally strong, there could not be better material than limestone.

One of the original casing stones for the Great Pyramid (circa 2570 BC), most of which were removed during medieval times. This block was found in the rubble surrounding the pyramid. ( CC BY SA 3.0 )

The Great Pyramid is located at the geographical center of Earth , as noticed by Charles Smyth and reported in this book “Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid” in 1864. The fact that the geographical center of Earth is at the location of the Great Pyramid is startling.

Now, for a structure to emit high frequency radiation (which is really light), it must be surrounded by a large land mass. This is the fundamental requirement for systems emitting electromagnetic radiation , of which any antenna design engineer is aware. If the pyramid needs to emit electromagnetic radiation on a scale of the whole planet, the maximum land mass location is ideal!

Antennas of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), on the Chajnantor Plateau in the Chilean Andes. The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, two companion galaxies to our own Milky Way galaxy, can be seen as bright smudges in the night sky, in the centre of the photograph. (ESO/C. Malin/ CC BY 4.0 )

The electrons emitted by the pyramid need to reach the ionosphere and there is about a 100-km air gap between the peak of the pyramid and the ionosphere. The earth is a spherical capacitor, which means electrons at high frequency would propagate through the air with little impedance. Also, the ionosphere has negligible impedance, which means electrons can travel along the layer of the ionosphere to the other side of the planet with practically no restriction. However, they need to come back to the base of the pyramid to complete the closed path.

Passing through the ionosphere, the electrons would be colliding with atoms of various gasses, creating air glow similar to Aurora Borealis. The electrons travel back toward Earth from the ionosphere through elevation points of the planet.

It is interesting to note that many ancient cultures across the planet have had pyramid like structures. With the ionosphere saturated with charged particles, building a pyramid would provide a path for electrons to come back to the Earth’s surface – creating intense light glow over the structure. Reaching the surface, the electrons would return to the pyramid base through the mantle of the planet, the impedance of which is also negligible.

As the electrons approach the Giza plateau, they would pass through caves filled with water. The finding of the caves was reported by Andrew Collins and Dr. Hawass. Another process took place there known as electrolysis, causing water molecules to split into hydrogen and oxygen gas. The gas mixture filling the caves caused air pressure build up on the bed rock, creating earth trembling and noise. It is interesting to note that the Pyramid Text has multiple references to quakes and trembles.

Finding the True Age of the Chalk Figure

The National Trust, in collaboration with the University of Gloucestershire, has now dated the Cerne Abbas Giant. They report that the largest chalk figure in Britain was probably created in the late Saxon period, between 700-1100 AD. Reflecting on the surprising results, independent geoarchaeologist Mike Allen says, “This is not what was expected. Many archaeologists and historians thought he was prehistoric or post-medieval, but not medieval. Everyone was wrong, and that makes these results even more exciting.”

Experts used a dating technique known as optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The BBC reports Martin Papworth, a National Trust archaeologist as stating that “the OSL technique was used to determine when ancient grains in soil were last exposed to the sunlight.” A group of archaeologists dug trenches to extract samples of soils from the giant’s feet and elbows. According to Papworth :

“The archaeology on the hillside was surprisingly deep – people have been re-chalking the giant over a long period of time. The deepest sample from his elbows and feet tells us he could not have been made before 700 AD, ruling out theories that he is of prehistoric or Roman origin. This probable Saxon date places him in a dramatic part of Cerne history. Nearby Cerne Abbey was founded in 987 AD and some sources think the abbey was set up to convert the locals from the worship of an early Anglo Saxon god known as ‘Heil’ or ‘Helith’. The early part of our date range does invite the question, was the giant originally a depiction of that god?”

The results also provided a conundrum because the first record of the giant comes from a church warden documenting the figure’s reparation in 1694. Papworth says :

“The science suggests he could be medieval, but intriguingly, surviving documents from Cerne Abbey don’t mention the giant. In the 16th century it’s as if the giant’s not there, and John Norden’s survey of 1617 makes no mention of him. And why would a rich and famous abbey – just a few yards away – commission, or sanction, a naked man carved in chalk on the hillside?”

Papworth proposes that the Cerne Abbas Giant may have been grassed over and forgotten until “in low sunlight, people saw that figure on the hill and decided to re-cut him again. That would explain why he doesn’t appear in the abbey records or in Tudor surveys.”

In the past, the OSL technique has successfully dated another famous chalk figure. The Daily Mail quotes Papworth as saying that the method was “used to discover the age of the Uffington White Horse in Oxfordshire in the 1990s.” The technique showed that the horse figure was nearly 3 millennia old, which was much older than expected.

The End of the European Theater

The Mongol onslaught into Europe would halt when on 11 December 1241 when the great Mongol leader Ogedei Khan died.

Portrait of Ögedei Khan (the 14th century). The Chinese annotation reads: Third son of Genghis Khan, also known as Emperor Qaγan. He eliminated the Jin, his west expedition read central European. He reigned for 13 years, temple name Taizong. (Public Domain)

With his death, it was mandatory that all Mongol military expeditions stop and the Mongol princes were required to return to the capital of Karakorum to elect a new Khan. It was during this event that Subutai had been drawing up plans for the invasion of the Holy Roman Empire, but the man in charge of the European theater, Batu Khan, had to rush back since he was a prince.

Batu Khan on the throne. Batu Khan was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde. Batu was a son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan. (Public Domain)

It took three years before a new khan was elected and the man elected was Guyuk, and Guyuk had no interest in Batu. With a feud now in the works, any further military operations into Europe had ceased for the time being. With Subutai’s ambitions to advance further into Europe dashed, he received new military operations to conduct, particularly at the Song Dynasty during 1246-47.

Alternative Origin

As mentioned earlier, a Gorgon indicates anything that is dreadful. The term gorgon may have been a hypocoristic of gorgyra, which means “underground chamber” along those lines. A sixth century Samian inscription lists a gorgyra chryse. The term chryse means “golden.” Therefore, a gorgyra chryse indicates an underground chamber of gold. If correct, the gorgon’s head refers to money or coin. If one uses gargara it means “heaps, lots, plenty.” This interpretation suggests not a living creature, but a treasury.

If one takes this interpretation, Perseus comes off as a mere international commercial venture adventurer who undertook a risk involving dangerous uncertainty based on speculation in hope of profit. Thus, the head Perseus seeks is not literal, but money or coin engraved with the image of the gorgoneion. In order to procure this great wealth, Perseus headed to the market to acquire certain tools and more importantly, to make contracts in order to conduct his business in Libya.

Jewish human organ trade in turkey stealing Syrian children

September 6th, 2015 Wake Up Fools

Jewish human organ trade in turkey stealing Syrian children

A Syrian child whose many of his internal organs were stolen in Turkey (home of the Khazar Jew) ” the land of promise ” and later dropped in its garbage containers.

Posted in Jewish human organ trade in turkey stealing Syrian children Tags: A Syrian child whose many of his internal organs were stolen in Turkey (home of the Khazar Jew)

21 Responses to “Jewish human organ trade in turkey stealing Syrian children”

this terrorisum and sick peoples plots and scheems ad ilegal activiy and this is geting out of hand the world needs an up rising where good level headed and people with no greed in there heats need to be put in there place to fix everything

The very worst people come to the forefront when there is the kind of disaster that we are facing. There are always those who will take advantage of the innocent the military actions (no, it’s not war) in Yemen and Syria and Palestine have provided a veritable feast of impotent innocents, any number of whom will not be missed. They will be used for slavery and prostitution and spare parts. They will not be educated, protected and loved they are spare people. “Useless eaters.” And yes, resources like water are getting scarcer the PTB are trying to hide the disaster that is on its way. Ocean rise. Pollution. The contamination of the Pacific Ocean with radiation and oil.

This doesn’t need to happen, but we do need to fight before it is too late to do so.

Humanity says:

Spoken like a true Satanic Jew.

Yeah same as holocaust was a lie. Just to show Jews as oppressed.

if is a lie, please tell us why. fuckin satanic jew.

Actually it’s not lies, there have been numerous cases documented of Israel stealing organs, both in the USa and several other places. In fact the Israeli government has admitted it regularly removes organs without consent. Israel is the largest exporter of harvested organs in the world but has one of the smallest populations, explain THAT one !! You can google human organ trafficking in the USA and see several Jews have been imprisoned for it. Research it.

U jews are mother fucker… We will fuck ur mother sister, wife, children… Time is ver near to come.. U also study quran.. We are ready for final crusade… Fick u ace holes

The holocaust was true. And you hate the Jews you hate God who created them . so stop being ignorant

Why do you think God send most of His messengers to Jews only? Because jews are the most corrupt nation in the face of the earth, which already proven with what they are doing in the world right now, what they doing with the children and woman. Violating the humen rights like they are the only one who deserve to live in this world. They are Hypocrites they will say something else in your face but behind your back they will plot against you. Thats why Jesus Christ called the jews wicked and adulterous generation.I am 100% sure all the bombing in the world is done by Israel… which again are jews!

Humanity says:

HollowCo$t was a hoax like your whole bullshit history.

The only God that created the Jew was Satan (Moloch)

Humanity says:

The Jews are supposed to treat Goyims (non-Jews) as animals according to their religion.

they take the organs while the patient is still alive.. organs cannot be used if the patient is already dead…

The cornea is most commonly taken from the dead.

a quick search, it took me literally 5 secounds to find this
‘Israel has admitted pathologists harvested organs from dead Palestinians, and others, without the consent of their families – a practice it said ended in the 1990s – it emerged at the weekend.

The admission, by the former head of the country’s forensic institute, followed a furious row prompted by a Swedish newspaper reporting that Israel was killing Palestinians in order to use their organs – a charge that Israel denied and called “antisemitic”.

The revelation, in a television documentary, is likely to generate anger in the Arab and Muslim world and reinforce sinister stereotypes of Israel and its attitude to Palestinians. Iran’s state-run Press TV tonight reported the story, illustrated with photographs of dead or badly injured Palestinians.

Ahmed Tibi, an Israeli Arab MP, said the report incriminated the Israeli army.

The story emerged in an interview with Dr Yehuda Hiss, former head of the Abu Kabir forensic institute near Tel Aviv. The interview was conducted in 2000 by an American academic who released it because of the row between Israel and Sweden over a report in the Stockholm newspaper Aftonbladet.

Channel 2 TV reported that in the 1990s, specialists at Abu Kabir harvested skin, corneas, heart valves and bones from the bodies of Israeli soldiers, Israeli citizens, Palestinians and foreign workers, often without permission from relatives.

The Israeli military confirmed to the programme that the practice took place, but added: “This activity ended a decade ago and does not happen any longer.”

Hiss said: “We started to harvest corneas … whatever was done was highly informal. No permission was asked from the family.”

However, there was no evidence that Israel had killed Palestinians to take their organs, as the Swedish paper reported. Aftonbladet quoted Palestinians as saying young men from the West Bank and Gaza Strip had been seized by the Israeli forces and their bodies returned to their families with missing organs. The interview with Hiss was released by Nancy Scheper-Hughes, professor of anthropology at the University of California-Berkeley who had conducted a study of Abu Kabir.

She was quoted by the Associated Press as saying that while Palestinians were “by a long shot” not the only ones affected, she felt the interview must be made public, because “the symbolism, you know, of taking skin of the population considered to be the enemy, [is] something, just in terms of its symbolic weight, that has to be reconsidered.”

Israel demanded that Sweden condemn the Aftonbladet article, calling it an antisemitic “blood libel”. Stockholm refused, saying that to so would violate freedom of speech in the country. The foreign minister then cancelled a visit to Israel, just as Sweden was taking over the EU’s rotating presidency.

Hiss was removed from his post in 2004, when some details about organ harvesting were first reported, but he still works at the forensic institute.

Israel’s health ministry said all harvesting was now done with permission. “The guidelines at that time were not clear,” it said in a statement to Channel 2. “For the last 10 years, Abu Kabir has been working according to ethics and Jewish law.”‘

published by the Guardian UK newspaper.2009

I believe, you should correct some of the contradictional information you write about Jews or Khazarians.

Turkey is definitely not the homeland of the Jews, which you call as Khazars or Khazarians. The region Khazar starts from the East Ukraine in the west and ends at Caspian Sea in the east and at Black Sea in the south. So, how can Turkey be the homeland of the Khazarians resp. Jews?

Khazarians are besides the Avars the only Turkic tribe or nation which converted to Judaism in the 8th century. After the collapse of their state caused by emerging Russian state, they migrated to the Eastern Europe and mixed with other semitic Jews, who was enslaved by the Roman Empire and brought to Europe many centuries ago, before the Khazars become Jews.

So it is actually totaly wrong, to say, that Jews were turkic Khazars in fact. Today’s Jew do not look like any turkic tribe. They are one of the genetically extremely mixed nations in the world. There are only a minority of the Jews, who have minimal similar facial features like Turks such as Karl Marx, Tzipi Livni (compare to turkish journalist Nuray Mert). But most of the jews look like either semitic like Michael Friedmann or slavic like Mark Zuckerberg, Rothschild etc. or like Europeans.

Humanity says:

When you do some deep research. You will find Khazarians moved from Turkey into Georgia area (Khazaria)

Israeli geneticist: Ashkenazi jews come from Turkish villages, not Palestine
April 21st, 2016 Humanity Edit
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New research suggests that the majority of the world’s modern Jewish population is descended mainly from people from ancient Turkey, rather than predominantly from elsewhere in the Middle East.

The new research suggests that most of the Jewish population of northern and eastern Europe – normally known as Ashkenazic Jews – are the descendants of Greeks, Iranians and others who colonized what is now northern Turkey more than 2000 years ago and were then converted to Judaism, probably in the first few centuries AD by Jews from Persia. At that stage, the Persian Empire was home to the world’s largest Jewish communities.

According to research carried out by the geneticist, Dr Eran Elhaik of the University of Sheffield, over 90 per cent of Ashkenazic ancestors come from that converted partially Greek-originating ancient community in north-east Turkey.

His research is based on genetic, historical and place-name evidence. For his geographic genetic research, Dr Elhaik used a Geographic Population Structure computer modelling system to convert Ashkenazic Jewish DNA data into geographical information.

Dr Elhaik, an Israeli-born geneticist who gained his doctorate in molecular evolution from the University of Houston, believes that three still-surviving Turkish villages – Iskenaz, Eskenaz and Ashanaz – on the western part of an ancient Silk Road route were part of the original Ashkenazic homeland. He believes that the word Ashkenaz originally comes from Ashguza – the ancient Assyrian and Babylonian name for the Iron Age Eurasian steppeland people, the Scythians.

Referring to the names of the three Turkish villages, Dr Elhaik points out that “north-east Turkey is the only place in the world where these place-names exist”.

From the 690s AD onwards, anti-Jewish persecution by the Christian Byzantine Empire seems to have played a part in forcing large numbers of Jews to flee across the Black Sea to a more friendly state – the Turkic-ruled Khazar Empire with its large Slav and other populations.

Some analyses of Yiddish suggests that it was originally a Slavic language, and Dr Elhaik and others believe that it was developed, probably in the 8th and 9th centuries AD, by Jewish merchants trading along some of the more northerly Silk Roads linking China and Europe.

By the 730s, the Khazar Empire had begun to convert to Judaism – and more people converted to the faith.

But when the Khazar Empire declined in or around the 11th century, some of the Jewish population almost certainly migrated west into Central Europe. There, as Yiddish-speaking Jewish merchants came into contact with central European, often German-speaking, peoples, they began to replace the Slav words in Yiddish with large numbers of German and German-derived words, while retaining some of its Slav-originating grammar. Many Hebrew words also appear to have been added by that stage.

The genetic modelling used in the research was based on DNA data from 367 Jews of northern and eastern European origin and more than 600 non-Jewish people mainly from Europe and western Asia.

Dr Elhaik says it is the largest genomic study ever carried out on Ashkenazic Jews. His research will be published in the UK-based scientific journal, Genome Biology and Evolution.

Further research is planned to try to measure the precise size of the Semitic genetic input into Jewish and non-Jewish genomes.

Gretchen Whitmer’s Approval Dips Below 50% as Scandals Mount

May 12th, 2021 Wake Up Fools

Michigan Gov. Gretchen Whitmer’s (D) job approval dipped below 50 percent, according to a new poll.

Progress Michigan, a far-left advocacy group, asked 820 Michigan voters May 5-6, 2020 about Whitmer’s job performance and 49 percent said they approved, six percent said they “somewhat” disapproved, and 43 percent “strongly” disapproved.

Meanwhile, 51 percent said they approved of Whitmer’s handling of the coronavirus. Forty percent said they approved of how the legislature has handled the response, the legislative branch effectively shut out by Whitmer.

Michigan Attorney General Dana Nessel (D) and Secretary of State Jocelyn Benson (D) fared less favorably in the survey.

Forty-one percent of respondents approved of Nessel’s performance, while 45 percent saw Benson’s job positively.

Progress Michigan did not ask about Whitmer’s recent scandals, which included her reportedly traveling to Florida on a private jet days before telling Michigan residents not to, two of her top advisers traveling to Florida and Alabama for spring break despite the governor’s lecture to Michiganders not to, and a secret deal worth over $155,000 to the former Michigan Department of Health and Human Services Director Robert Gordon.

Other findings of note include:

  • 55 percent thought the 2020 presidential election results were “legitimate,” 37 percent did not
  • 54 percent support “stricter voter ID laws,” 41 percent do not
  • President Joe Biden’s job approval matched Whitmer’s at 49 percent
  • 31 percent said they “do not plan” to get a coronavirus vaccine which would complicate Whitmer’s strategy of 70 percent vaccination to fully reopen the state.

The poll had a partisan breakdown of 34 percent Democrats, 30 percent Republicans, and 37 percent independents.

Kyle Olson is a reporter for Breitbart News. He is also host of “The Kyle Olson Show,” syndicated on Michigan radio stations on Saturdays–download full podcast episodes. Follow him on Parler.

The Battle of Kadesh

After many days, Ramses led his army to Usermare-Meriamon, the city of cedar. From here, he proceeded northward and arrived at the highland of Kadesh. Ramses, like his father, crossed over the channel of the Orontes, with the first division of Amon named: “Victory-of-King-Usermare-Setepnere.”

When Ramses reached the city, he states in the battle of Kadesh account:

Behold, the wretched, vanquished chief of Kheta (Hittites) had come, having gathered together all countries from the ends of the sea to the land of Kheta, which came entire: the Naharin likewise, and Arvad, Mesa, Keshkesh, Kelekesh, Luka, Kezweden, Carchemish, Ekereth, Kode, the entire land of Nuges, Mesheneth, and Kadesh. He left not a country which was not brought together with their chiefs who were with him, every man bringing his chariotry, an exceeding great multitude, without its like. They covered the mountains and the valleys they were like grasshoppers with their multitudes. He left not silver nor gold in his land but he plundered it of all its possessions and gave to every country, in order to bring them with him to battle. Behold, the wretched, vanquished chief of Kheta, together with numerous allied countries, were stationed in battle array, concealed on the northwest of the city of Kadesh.

While Ramses was alone with his bodyguard, the division of Amon was marching behind him. The division of Ra crossed over the river-bed on the south side of the town of Shabtuna, at the distance of an iter (assuming that 1 iter = 5,000 royal cubits = 2618 meters or 1.6 miles) from the division of Amon the division of Ptah was on the south of the city of Aranami and the division of Sutekh was marching upon the road.

Egyptian relief dating to Ramesses II’s reign, depicting Kadesh garrisoned by Hittites and surrounded by the Orontes River. (Public Domain)

Ramses had formed the first rank of all the leaders of his army, while they were on the shore in the land of the Amor. Behold, the wretched vanquished chief of Kheta (Hittites) was stationed in the midst of the infantry which was with him, and he came not out to fight, for fear of his majesty. Then he made to go the people of the chariotry, an exceedingly numerous multitude like the sand, being three people to each span. Now, they had made their combinations thus: among every three youths was one man of the vanquished of Kheta, equipped with all the weapons of battle. Lo, they had stationed them in battle array, concealed on the northwest the city of Kadesh.

The Hittite forces rushed forth from the tree line on the southern side of Kadesh, and cut right through the division of Ra, exposing the Egyptian right flank. This caused many of the Egyptian infantry and chariotry to retreat in panic and slam right into the Amon division led by Ramses, which he had halted on the north of the city of Kadesh, on the western side of the Orontes. After the Hittite chariots had punched their way through the Ra division, they swung back towards the plains of Kadesh from which they headed northeast to attack Ramses’ encampment. Even though some Hittite units were able to penetrate the camp, many were knocked off their chariots and slain by Ramses’ bodyguard. While Ramses and his men put up a valiant effort, they had to abandon the camp/fort. The Hittite soldiers had a field day looting the camp.

While the Hittites were busy looting the camp, Ramses rushed to his chariot and quickly took off without his bodyguard. It is said that when he rushed in he defeated the thousands of chariots that surrounded him:

His majesty (Ramses) halted in the rout then he charged into the foe, the vanquished of Kheta, being alone by himself and none other with him. When his majesty went to look behind him, he found 2,500 chariotry surrounding him, in his way out, being all the youth of the wretched Kheta, together with its numerous allied countries.

Egyptian driving chariot, Crossroads of Civilization exhibit (CC BY 2.0) Deriv

While this is obviously dismissed as legend and exaggeration, there may be some truth to this. Understand that Ramses’ men panicked and fled. After seeing him take on the Hittites, his troops regained their courage and the remaining chariot reserves in the camp rallied and pressed on the attack. The Egyptian chariots left the east gate before turning northwest and nailed the Hittite flank that was busy looting. Ramses’ attack on the heavy Hittite chariots dislodged and threw many of them into confusion, because not only did the remaining Egyptian charioteer units rejoin the battle, so did the infantry.

Model of chariots at the Battle of Kadesh. (CC BY-SA 4.0)

Seeing Ramses and his forces pressing a counter-attack, Muwatalli took up his remaining forces, which were roughly 1,000 chariots. They forded the Orontes River north of Kadesh and swung south in an attempt to flank Ramses.

Illustration, The great Ramses II in the Battle of Khadesh (Public Domain)

However, Muwatalli had an unforeseen problem. As he was making his way towards Ramses’ forces, the reformed Egyptian forces (perhaps allied mercenary forces summoned by Ramses) and the third Egyptian division, the Sutekh, approaching from the south. If Muwatalli could not regain control of his men and the battle, he would soon face the hammer and anvil and it sure seemed that way, for Ramses decide to cease further pursuit of the fleeing Hittites and join up with the Sutekh division. Ramses had no worries about the fleeing Hittites, for they were between his forces and the river. Muwatalli saw that Ramses and his forces turned north towards his relief force. The Hittite relief force had no chance. They were cut down and destroyed. Muwatalli and his remaining forces fled the field of battle and headed south past Kadesh and crossed the Orontes. Of all the Egyptian divisions that fought, one arrived late to the battle and that was the Ptah division.

Sumerian Armor and Chariot

The Sumerian shield appears to be a rectangular body shield as demonstrated by the Stele of Vultures. Unfortunately, no surviving Sumerian shields exist. The closest resemblance to the Sumerian shield was the discovery of the Mari shield. The Mari shield was made of reeds covered in hide but had no boss in the center, unlike the Sumerian shields depicted in the Stele. The Sumerian shield depicted in the stele appears to have six bosses when in fact it only has one. Upon closer examination, each individual is holding the spear with two hands.

However, it is possible that a shield bearer is holding the shield. Another alternative, which appears more plausible, is that the spearman is using a neck strap to hold the shield in place.

The Sumerian helmet was a copper hat that was roughly two to three millimeters thick, fitting over a leather or wool cap, which provided another four millimeters of protection. In total, the helmet was a quarter of an inch thick. Some may speculate as to why the Sumerian soldier was fitted with a copper, rather than a bronze helmet. This may be due to the fact that the Sumerians had not developed the ability due to the difficulty in casting such a mold to fit the shape of a wearers head.

The Sumerian cloak depicted in the Stele of the Vultures appears to be ordinary. On closer inspection, the cloak seems to have been made of cloth or thin leather with metal disks, possibly bronze or copper, sewn into the fabric. The purpose for this is obvious— to thwart spear blows to torso. More importantly, this is the first depiction of body armor.

When it comes to the chariot, one must be careful when using the word ‘chariot’ when dealing with the Sumerians. What appears to be a chariot is not it lacks the refinements of a true chariot. To the Sumerians, this vehicle was a “battle car.” Another vehicle brought to battle was a “straddle car.” This straddle car was a cabless platform in which the driver had to balance himself by straddling the car. Both vehicles were either four-wheeled or two and required four wild asses to pull them. Very different from their future replacements, but for the time, they did their job.

Detail, Relief of early war wagons on the Standard of Ur, c. 2500 BC (Public Domain)

The Sumerian chariot was crude but innovative for its day. In all likelihood its early use was for the king and nobles. There is indication later on that Lugalzagesi (or Lugal-Zage-Si), the last Sumerian king, boasted that his vassals could provide him 600 battle-cars for war. However, it is recorded that the king of city-state of Umma had an elite unit of 60 battle-cars at his beck and call. This is the only evidence which gives detail into the number of vehicles by any state for war.

The Sumerian battle-car, cumbersome and slow as it would have been, was used for shock troops. The arms of the charioteer were the javelin or axe. Moreover, the vehicle likely transported its heavy infantry to the battlefield. Overall, the Sumerian battle-car was indeed slow, but provided mobility for the infantry and delivered shock to the enemy.

Further information on the military organization of the Sumerian military is vague at best. However, understand that the idea of a Sumerian military organization is generic. In other words, the Sumerian civilization was just that—a civilization consisting of a series of independent city-states. Some Sumerian kings controlled just one city-state, while others held multiple city-states under their control. Therefore, the number of troops a single king could field varied. This also applies to the amount of professional troops under the command of the king. Some kings could afford many, while many more could not.

As for battlefield performance, it would not be unreasonable to think that the conscripted men, who made up the bulk of the Sumerian fighting force, were primarily used since the professional soldier was far costlier to lose and fewer in number. Not only was the professional crucial in determining the outcome of the battle, but he also was crucial in keeping the peace within the city and most importantly, needed to protect the king. While increasing the ranks of professionals sounds lucrative from a position of security, it was too expensive. The costs to pay, feed, and equip the professional soldier, especially increasing their numbers, were too much. It was far cheaper to rely on temporary conscription. However, this would not last, for Eannatum, King of Lagash (circa 2455-2425 BCE), established the first Mesopotamian empire in history through constant warring.

Battle scene with horsemen, Assyrian, about 728 BC, from Nimrud. (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Eannatum’s conquest of Elam gave him the resources needed to provide an army on the march. The lands of Elam were rich in timber, precious metals, and stone. Such lucrative resources brought forth more wealth from which he could draw from to pay his soldiers and to expand the ranks to aid in his desires for further conquest. Eannatum would be the first of many in the history of warfare who conquered to confiscate the wealth of those subjugated to grease the wheels of their armies.

One fragment of the victory stele of the king Eannatum of Lagash over Umma. It depicts severed human heads in the beaks of vultures, and a fragment of cuneiform script. (CC BY-SA 3.0)

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