Louis Howe

Louis Howe

Louis Howe, the son of wealthy parents, was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, on 14th January, 1871. His father, Edward P. Howe had been a captain with the Union Army in the Civil War. Howe suffered from asthma and never grew to more than five feet tall. His face was badly scarred by a childhood bicycle accident. (1)

Edward Howe made some bad investments and in 1878 he was declared bankrupt. The family moved to Saratoga, New York, with help from his mother's family. After borrowing money from friends he purchased The Saratoga Sun and instead of attending university, Howe went to work for the newspaper. (2)

Howe left his father's newspaper in 1901 and became a freelance journalist working for the New York Herald. (3) One of his most important stories was to interview Vice President Theodore Roosevelt on his return to Washington, D.C. after the death of President William McKinley. (4)

In 1906 Howe was hired by Thomas Mott Osborne in his battle to defeat the press baron, William Randolph Hearst, who was trying to become the Democratic Party presidential candidate. Hearst, who owned 28 newspapers and magazines, was a difficult man to beat. Howe biographer Julie M. Fenster describes the anti-Hearst campaign as a "personal turning point" for Howe, in which he got his first taste of politics, learned the practical mechanics of party organization, and had an opportunity to make news rather than simply reporting it. (5)

During this period Hoover met the young politician, Franklin D. Roosevelt. Howe was greatly impressed with Roosevelt and came to the conclusion that "nothing but an accident could keep him from becoming president". (6) Making sure he did did so became the purpose of Howe's life. As his secretary explained, "Louis was small, ugly and insignificant looking. Roosevelt was big, handsome and dramatic. Louis Howe closed one eye and saw the two divergent personalities merge into a political entity and the picture fascinated him." (7)

Patrick Renshaw claimed: "To the end of his life, with his high, stiff collars and watchful eyes, Howe conveyed this racy atmosphere of the era before the Great War. Personal familiarity with the seamier side of life, which Frank's own patrician background precluded, was the quality Roosevelt most valued in him. Short, thin and untidily dressed in suits which appeared second or third-hand, Howe looked like a medieval gargoyle with a twentieth-century cigarette dangling perpetually from his small mouth." (8)

At first Eleanor Roosevelt, was unhappy about Howe's influence: "At times I resented this intimacy, and at this time I was very sure of my own judgment about people... Louis was entirely indifferent to his appearance; he not only neglected his clothes but gave the impression at times that cleanliness was not of particular interest to him. The fact that he had rather extraordinary eyes and a fine mind I was fool enough not to have discovered as yet, and it was by externals alone that I had judged him in our association." (9)

Roosevelt asked Howe to be his campaign manager in his attempt to retain his seat in the New York senate. Howe was asked to devise a strategy to win the farm vote. One of the main complaints concerned the New York commission merchants, the middlemen who pocketed the difference between what the farmer got for his crop and what the consumer paid. Howe drafted a letter promising that if re-elected, Roosevelt would become chairman of the Senate Agriculture Committee. There he would ensure passage of an agricultural marketing act that would increase the farmers income. Howe mailed more than eleven thousand letters to voters. Each letter contained a stamped, self-addressed envelope for the farmer's reply. This was highly successful and he had an easy victory in November 1912. (10)

According to Eleanor Roosevelt, Howe's most important contribution to her husband's political outlook was to persuade him to become concerned with the plight of the American work-force. He arranged for him to meet with trade union leaders. Louis Howe insisted Franklin Roosevelt attend hearings on labour problems in person rather than delegate labour relations to someone else. (11)

Frances Perkins, another Roosevelt advisor, agreed: "Howe's... admiration for Roosevelt was based partly upon the idea, which he conceived early, that he could make a great politician out of Roosevelt. Howe called attention to political movements developing and made a point of seeing that Roosevelt became acquainted with different politicians whom he brought in to see him." (12)

On 13th January, 1913, President Woodrow Wilson invited Roosevelt to Washington. He was introduced to Josephus Daniels, the new Secretary of the Navy. Daniels asked Roosevelt: "How would you like to be assistant secretary of the Navy?" Roosevelt replied: "It would please me better than anything in the world. All my life I have loved ships and have been a student of the Navy, and the assistant secretaryship is the one place, above all others, that I would like to hold... nothing would please me so much as to be with you in the Navy." (13)

Louis Howe moved to Washington to be with Roosevelt and was appointed as his secretary on $2,000 a year. "My husband had asked Louis Howe to come down as his assistant in the Navy Department; Louis moved his wife and two children, one of them a fairly well-grown girl and the other a baby boy, into an apartment not far from us." (14) Every morning at 8.15 Howe would call for Roosevelt and the two men would walk to the Navy Department. Elliott Roosevelt fondly remembers his father "striding down Connecticut Avenue with Louis hurrying along at his side. The two of them looked uncannily like Don Quixote and Sancho setting out to battle with giants." (15)

Howe's duties involved labour relations, special investigations and speech writing. He also took charge of patronage, handled Roosevelt's correspondence, made appointments for his boss. Daniels soon became aware of Howe's importance: "Howe advised FDR about everything. His one and only ambition was to steer Franklin's course so that he could take the tide at the full. He was totally devoted. He would have sidetracked both President Wilson and me to get Franklin Roosevelt to the White House." (16)

As assistant secretary of the Navy, Roosevelt's impact on the policies of the Wilson's administration was minimal. However, his eight years in Washington provided the opportunity to learn about the realities of national politics. Howe taught Roosevelt how to deal with organized labour. On several occasions he had meetings with trade union leaders. His great strength was that he was a good listener. He told them: "I want you to feel that you can come to me at any time in my office and we can talk matters over. Let's get together for I need you to teach me your business and show me what's going on." (17)

On 10th August, 1921, Franklin Roosevelt took a swim in Lake Glen Severn, a shallow freshwater pond on Campobello Island. About an hour later Roosevelt felt a sudden chill. He went straight to bed but continued to tremble despite two heavy blankets. The next morning he was worse. When he attempted to stand his left leg buckled beneath him. That evening he had lost the power to move his legs. He ached all over and was paralyzed from the chest down. However, it was not until fifteen years later before he was diagnosed as suffering from poliomyelitis. (18)

At first it was hoped that it was a mild attack but by October it was clear that he had lost the ability to walk. Sara Roosevelt wanted her son to retire from public life. Eleanor Roosevelt and Louis Howe disagreed and thought that the prospect of returning to politics would aid his recovery. Eleanor later recalled: "This was the most trying winter of my entire life. My mother-in-law thought we were tiring my husband and that he should be kept completely quiet. This made the discussions about his care somewhat acrimonious on occasion." (19)

Although he was confined to bed, with the help of Eleanor, Louis and his new secretary, Marguerite LeHand, he was able to keep up a constant correspondence with Democratic Party leaders. In March, 1922, he was fitted with steel braces that weighted fourteen pounds and ran from his heels to above his hips. Since his hips were paralyzed, he was incapable of moving his legs individually and was taught to pivot forward on his crutches, using his head and upper body for leverage. His doctor told him that he would never be able to walk normally. (20)

Louis Howe took care of Roosevelt's public image. "Roosevelt had after his illness four means of locomotion: (a) he could walk on somebody's arm with the braces and a cane, (b) he could walk with braces and crutches, (c) the wheel-chair, (d) he could be carried. He hated to be carried, and Louis Howe laid it down as an iron rule that he must never be carried in public. But in private he was carried, like an infant, thousands of times. For instance in later years, at dinner in the White House or elsewhere, he would usually be carried in to his place at the table before the company arrived.... Often, however, he used the chair. His servants and helpers acquired a marvellous dexterity in manipulating the change from the wheel-chair to another so quickly and unobtrusively that few people ever noticed." (21)

It was also Howe's idea that Eleanor Roosevelt should play an active role in politics until her husband was fit enough to go campaigning. Howe also taught Eleanor how to make speeches: "When I first tried to make speeches, Louis Howe impressed on me the fact that I could be of great help to Franklin if I handled them well. He came and sat in the back, and sat and sat. Afterwards he would say to me, 'You were terrible. There was nothing funny - why did you laugh?' That laugh of mine was only nervousness, of course. I've managed to control it, but now and then I lapse, and every time it happens, I remember Louis Howe. He said to me, about speaking, 'Think out what you want to say, and when you've said it, sit down. Write out your first sentence, and your last. Never write down anything in between. Just talk.' I still do it that way." (22)

Franklin Roosevelt returned to public life in 1924 when he agreed to help Al Smith in his attempt to become president. According to Eleanor: "He was entirely well and lived a normal life, restricted only by his inability to walk. On the whole, his general physical condition improved year by year, until he was stronger in some ways than before his illness... In the spring of 1924, before the National Democratic Convention met in New York, Al Smith, who was a candidate for the presidential nomination, asked him to manage his pre-convention campaign. This was the first time that my husband was to be in the public eye since his illness. A thousand and one little arrangements had to be made and Louis carefully planned each step of the way." (23)

In 1928 Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected as Governor of New York. Roosevelt appointed Louise Howe as his chief of staff. Other appointments included Frances Perkins (industrial commissioner), Edward J. Flynn (secretary of state), James Farley (chief strategist), Henry Morgenthau (Agricultural Advisory Commission), Samuel Rosenman (speech writer) and Basil O'Connor (legal adviser). (24)

Roosevelt was the Democratic Party candidate in the 1932 Presidential Election. In his acceptance speech Roosevelt argued: "Yes, the people of this country want a genuine choice this year, not a choice between two names for the same reactionary doctrine. Ours must be a party of liberal thought, of planned action, of enlightened international outlook, and of the greatest good to the greatest number of our citizens.... Let us all here assembled constitute ourselves prophets of a new order of competence and of courage. This is more than a political campaign; it is a call to arms. Give me your help, not to win votes alone, but to win in this crusade to restore America to its own people." (25)

Roosevelt selected John Nance Garner as his running mate. Roosevelt's campaign did little to reassure critics who thought him a vacillating politician. For example, he attacked the Hoover administration because it was "committed to the idea that we ought to centre control of everything in Washington as rapidly as possible" but advanced policies which would greatly extend the power of the national government. He said he would initiate a far-reaching plan to help the farmer; but he would do it in such a way that it would not "cost the Government any money". (26)

Louis Howe played a very important role in the election campaign. The journalist, John Gunther, has argued: "His only ambition was to be 'manager' of the man whom he genuinely thought to be the greatest human being history had ever produced. All he wanted was to be secretary to the President; probably he is the only man in Roosevelt's whole career whose ambition, from first to last, remained so modest." (27)

Roosevelt made twenty-seven major addresses during the six month 1932 Presidential Election campaign, each devoted to a single subject. He spoke briefly on thirty-two additional occasions, usually at whistle-stops or impromptu gatherings to which he was invited. President Herbert Hoover, by contrast, made only ten speeches, all of which were delivered during the closing weeks of the campaign. (28)

At a meeting in Detroit, President Hoover told the audience, "I wish to present to you the evidence that the measures and the policies of the Republican administration are winning this major battle for recovery. And we are taking care of distress in the meantime. It can be demonstrated that the tide has turned and the gigantic forces of depression are today in retreat." (29) The crowd responded with the cry: "Down with Hoover, slayer of veterans". According to one observer: "When he got up to speak, his face was ashen, his hands trembled. Toward the end, Hoover was a pathetic figure, a weary, beaten man, often jeered by crowds as a President had never been jeered before." (30)

Three days before the 1932 Presidential Election Hoover claimed that Roosevelt's policies could be compared to those of Joseph Stalin. He suggested that his opponent had "the same philosophy of government which has poisoned all of Europe... the fumes of the witch's cauldron which boiled in Russia." He accused the Democrats of being "the party of the mob". Hoover then added: "Thank God, we still have a government in Washington that knows how to deal with the mob." (31)

The turnout, almost 40 million, was the largest in American history. Roosevelt received 22,825,016 votes to Hoover's 15,758,397. With a 472-59 margin in the Electoral College, he captured every state south and west of Pennsylvania. Roosevelt carried more counties than a presidential candidate had ever won before, including 282 that had never gone Democratic. Of the forty states in Hoover's victory coalition four years before, the President held but six. Hoover received 6 million fewer votes than he had in 1928. The Democrats gained ninety seats in the House of Representatives to give them a large majority (310-117) and won control of the Senate (60-36). Only one previous Republican candidate, William Howard Taft, had done as badly as Hoover. (32)

President Franklin Roosevelt provided Howe with his own suite at the White House and gave him the title Secretary to the President, According to Eleanor Roosevelt he was her husband most candid friend. Harold Ickes observed: "Howe was the only one who dared to talk to him frankly and fearlessly. He not only could tell him what he believed to be the truth, but he could hang on like a pup to the root until he got results." (33) Howe described his role in the administration as the president's "no-man", checking Roosevelt's natural enthusiasm and preventing unsound proposals from reaching wider discussion. (34)

However, it has been pointed out that Roosevelt became more aware of Howe's limitations after he became president. Although he had splendid political judgement he knew "nothing about economics". It was members of the Brains Trust such as Raymond Moley, Rexford G. Tugwell, Adolf Berle, Samuel Rosenman, Felix Frankfurter, Louis Brandeis (who introduced the group to the ideas of John Maynard Keynes) and Benjamin Cohen, who developed the policies that became known as the New Deal. (35)

Brandeis and Frankfurter both urged Roosevelt to bring in progressive legislation that would challenge the power of big business. However, they did not always get the full support of the Brains Trust. Brandis wrote: "I am still troubled about Big Finance... And sooner or later, F.D.R. will have to deal with heavier taxes on the right. My respectable wise ones here seem as much afraid of putting an end to the super-rich as they are to putting an end to super-big corporations." (36)

Roosevelt's first act as president was to deal with the country's banking crisis. Since the beginning of the depression, a fifth of all banks had been forced to close. Already 389 banks had shut their doors since the beginning of the year." As a consequence, around 15% of people's life-savings had been lost. Banking was at the point of collapse. In 47 of the 48 states banks were either closed or working under tight restrictions. To buy time to seek a solution Roosevelt declared a four-day bank holiday. It has been claimed that the term "bank holiday" was used to seem festive and liberating. "The real point - the account holders could not use their money or get credit - was obscured." (37)

Brandeis, Frankfurter, and Rexford G. Tugwell agreed with progressives who wanted to use this opportunity to establish a truly national banking system. Heads of great financial institutions opposed this idea. Louis Howe supported conservatives on the Brains Trust such as Raymond Moley and Adolf Berle, who feared such a measure would create very dangerous enemies. Roosevelt was worried that such action "might accentuate the national sense of panic and bewilderment". (38)

Roosevelt summoned Congress into special session and presented it with an emergency banking bill that permitted the government to reopen the banks it ascertained to be sound, and other such banks as rapidly, as possible." The statue passed the House of Representatives by acclamation in a voice vote in forty minutes. In the Senate there was some debate and seven progressives, Robert LaFollette Jr, Huey P. Long, Gerald Nye, Edward Costigan, Henrik Shipstead, Porter Dale and Robert Davis Carey, voted against as they believed that it did not go far enough in asserting federal control. (39)

On 9th March, 1933, Congress passed the Emergency Banking Relief Act. Within three days, 5,000 banks had been given permission to be re-opened. President Roosevelt gave the first of his radio broadcasts (later known as his "fireside chats"): "Some of our bankers have shown themselves either incompetent or dishonest in their handling of the people's funds. They had used money entrusted to them in speculations and unwise loans. This was, of course, not true of the vast majority of our banks, but it was true in enough of them to shock the people for a time into a sense of insecurity. It was the government's job to straighten out this situation and do it as quickly as possible. And the job is being performed. Confidence and courage are the essentials in our plan. We must have faith; you must not be stampeded by rumours. We have provided the machinery to restore our financial system; it is up to you to support and make it work. Together we cannot fail." (40)

In March, 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Henry A. Wallace as Secretary of State for Agriculture. Felix Frankfurter suggested that Frank would be a useful addition to the department. According to William E. Leuchtenburg, the author of The FDR Years (1995), Frank had confided to Frankfurter: "I know you know Roosevelt very well. I want to get out of this Wall Street racket... This crisis seems to be the equivalent of a war and I'd like to join up for the duration." As a result, Wallace appointed Frank as general council to the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA). (41)

Frank worked under George N. Peek, who was the head of the AAA. John C. Culver and John C. Hyde, the authors of American Dreamer: A Life of Henry A. Wallace (2001) have argued that Peek never liked Jerome Frank and wanted to appoint his own general council: "Crusty and dogmatic, Peek still seethed with resentment over Wallace's appointment as secretary, a position he coveted.. Frank was liberal, brash, and Jewish. Peek loathed everything about him. In addition, Frank surrounded himself with idealistic left-wing lawyers... whom Peek also despised." This group of left-wing idealists included Frederic C. Howe, Adlai Stevenson, Alger Hiss, Lee Pressman, Hope Hale Davis and Gardner Jackson. Peek later wrote that the "place was crawling with... fanatic-like... socialists and internationalists." On another occasion he called the men "Lenin chicks". (42)

In May, 1933, the Bonus Marchers descended on Washington for another attempt to secure early payment of their insurance policies. President Roosevelt reacted very differently from Herbert Hoover. He arranged for them to stay at Fort Hunt. Tents, latrines, showers, mess halls, and a large convention tent were ready and waiting when the veterans arrived. "The Army provided a never-ending supply of coffee and three hot meals a day; the Medical Corps treated their ills; service dentists fixed their teeth; and the Navy Band played daily concerts." (43)

Louis Howe and Eleanor Roosevelt drove to Fort Hall. Roosevelt gave them instructions on how they should behave. "Above all, be sure there is plenty of good coffee. No questions asked. Just let the coffee flow all the time. There is nothing like it to make people feel better and feel welcome." (44) One of the men said: "Hoover sent the Army, Roosevelt sent his wife." (45)

She later recalled how she spent more than a hour at the camp inspected the facilities and living quarters: "I got out and walked over to where I saw a line-up of men waiting for food. They looked at me curiously and one of them asked my name and what I wanted. When I said I just wanted to see how they were getting on, they asked me to join them. After their bowls were filled with food, I followed them into the big eating hall. I was invited to say a few words to them." (46)

After negotiations President Roosevelt agreed to change the rules about the age that the men could receive their payments (most of the veterans were in their forties). The younger men were offered places in the recently formed Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). After the Bonus Army voted to disband the remaining four hundred or so were given free rail transportation home. He also pleased the men with the passing of the Public Works Administration (PWA) with its 3.3 billion dollar public works programme. (47)

The conflict between Peek and the young liberals in the AAA continued. Peek's main objective was to raise agricultural prices through cooperation with processors and large agribusinesses. Other members of the Agricultural Department such as Jerome Frank were primarily concerned to promote social justice for small farmers and consumers. On 15th November, 1933, Peek demanded that Wallace should fire Frank for insubordination. Wallace, who agreed more with Frank than Peek, refused. Peek was also hostile to Rexford Tugwell, who believed that Peek was an anti-Semite." (48)

Peek resigned from the AAA on 11th December, 1933. Peek was replaced by Chester R. Davis. He also came into conflict with these young radicals. In February 1935, Davis insisted that Jerome Frank and Alger Hiss should be dismissed. Wallace was unable to protect them: "I had no doubt that Frank and Hiss were animated by the highest motives, but their lack of agricultural background exposed them to the danger of going to absurd lengths... I was convinced that from a legal point of view they had nothing to stand on and that they allowed their social preconceptions to lead them to something which was not only indefensible from a practical, agricultural point of view, but also bad law." (49)

Davis told Frank: "I've had a chance to watch you and I think you are an outright revolutionary, whether you realize it or not". Wallace wrote in his diary: "I indicated that I believed Frank and Hiss had been loyal to me at all times, but it was necessary to clear up an administrative situation and that I agreed with Davis". According to Sidney Baldwin, the author of Poverty and Politics: The Rise and Decline of the Farm Security Administration (1968), Wallace greeted Frank with tears in his eyes: "Jerome, you've been the best fighter I've had for my ideas, but I've had to fire you... The farm people are just too strong." (50)

Rexford Tugwell attempted to protect Frank and Hiss and received support from Louis Howe and Harry Hopkins: "I went and talked to Harry Hopkins who was outraged, to Louis Howe who was sympathetic, to Henry Wallace who was red-faced and ashamed, and to the President. My first impulse was to resign... I made up my mind that Jerome must have justice." (51) Roosevelt refused to let him go and agreed to appoint Frank as a special counsel to the Reconstruction Finance Association. (52)

The health of Louis Howe gradually deteriorated and radicals in the administration could no longer rely on him to protect them. Felix Frankfurter wrote to President Roosevelt suggesting that a young lawyer, Thomas Corcoran, should be appointed in the role that Howe had been performing. He told Roosevelt that Concoran had the requisite qualities of discretion, analytical ability, a stylist, a shrewd judge of personalities, and a very good lawyer." (53)

Roosevelt also agreed to recruit another liberal lawyer, Benjamin Cohen: Frankfurter had brought in two lawyers who have been described as "perhaps the best legal team in the annals of American government. One reporter claimed that Corcoran and Cohen together wielded "more influence at the White House and throughout the White House, and are more of a force through the entire reaches of the government than any pair of statesmen in Washington." (54)

Louis Howe collapsed in March, 1935. He was moved to Bethesda Naval Hospital where Roosevelt went to visit him every couple of days. In the early spring, Howe was so ill that he gave up hope and told Roosevelt that he was "on his own now." Howe died on 18th April, 1936 and Roosevelt gave him a state funeral three days later in the White House. He told James Farley that it was a blessing in disguise since Howe "had declined to the point of giving orders that could cause trouble." (55)

Eleanor Roosevelt later recalled that her husband had lost his most intimate friend. "For one reason or another, no one quite filled the void. There are not many men in this world whose personal ambition is to accomplish things for someone else, and it was some time before a friendship with Harry Hopkins... again brought Franklin some of the satisfaction he had known with Louis Howe." (56)

Apart from Eleanor, Louis Howe became the crucial influence on Roosevelt's career. About ten years older than Roosevelt, Howe was his complete opposite. A veteran newspaper reporter, he grew up in New York's race-track country at Saratoga Springs, its plush hotels crowded with sportsmen, gamblers and politicians. To the end of his life, with his high, stiff collars and watchful eyes, Howe conveyed this racy atmosphere of the era before the Great War. Short, thin and untidily dressed in suits which appeared second or third-hand, Howe looked like a medieval gargoyle with a twentieth-century cigarette dangling perpetually from his small mouth. He himself said he was "one of the four ugliest men... in the State of New York... Children take one look at me on the street and run. Eleanor Roosevelt at first disliked this "dirty little man", but came to see he was invaluable to her husband and eventually to herself.

His sharp wit, cynicism, love of intrigue, strange oaths (such as "Mein Gawd") and creased face hid a sensitive spirit. Expressive brown eyes, together with love of art and theatre, hinted at this. More important, Howe lived for politics and had excellent political judgement. His favourite historian was Carlyle, and like him he believed in the hero in history.

The illness (poliomyelitis) made the odds against Roosevelt's reelection to the state senate seem unsurmountable. At this point a remarkable figure came to Roosevelt's rescue and became thenceforth his alter ego. This was Louis McHenry Howe, a resourceful, cynical newspaperman who concealed a vaulting ambition within a personal facade so wizened and rumpled that a political career seemed impossible for him. Like Roosevelt he was rather uncertain in his progressive ideology, but he was already tied politically to progressive Democrats. Further, Howe was a firm believer in the role of the great man in history. When Roosevelt, bedridden for the duration of the campaign, turned to him, Howe responded with enthusiasm, attaching his aspirations to the future of the handsome, charming young man.

Roosevelt had after his illness four means of locomotion: (a) he could walk on somebody's arm with the braces and a cane, (b) he could walk with braces and crutches, (c) the wheel-chair, (d) he could be carried. His servants and helpers acquired a marvellous dexterity in manipulating the change from the wheel-chair to another so quickly and unobtrusively that few people ever noticed.

I had never had any contact with newspaper people before. My grandmother had taught me that a woman's place was not in the public eye, and that idea had clung to me all through the Washington years. It never occurred to me to do more than answer through my secretary any questions that the reporters asked about social events. I gave as little information as possible, feeling that that was the only right attitude toward any newspaper people where a woman and her home were concerned.

But the years had taught me a certain adaptability to circumstances and I did receive an intensive education on this trip, and Louis Howe played a great part in this education from that time on. Ever since the Albany days be had been an intimate friend and coworker of my husband's..At times I resented this intimacy, and at this time I was very sure of my own judgment about people. I frequently tried to influence those about me, and there were occasions when I thought that Louis Howe's influence and mine, where my husband was concerned, had clashed; and I was, of course, sure that I was right.

Louis was entirely indifferent to his appearance; he not only neglected his clothes but gave the impression at times that cleanliness was not of particular interest to him. The fact that he had rather extraordinary eyes and a fine mind I was fool enough not to have discovered as yet, and it was by externals alone that I had judged him in our association prior to this trip.

In later years I learned that he had always liked me and thought I was worth educating, and for that reason he made an effort on this trip to get to know me. He did it cleverly. He knew that I was bewildered by some of the things expected of me as a candidate's wife. I never before had spent my days going on and off platforms, listening apparently with rapt attention to much the same speech, looking pleased at seeing people no matter how tired I was or greeting complete strangers with effusion.

Being a sensitive person, Louis knew that I was interested in the new sights and the new scenery, but that being the only woman was embarrassing. The newspaper fraternity was not so familiar to me at that time as it was to become in later years, and I was a little afraid of it. Largely because of Louis Howe's early interpretation of the standards and ethics of the newspaper business, I came to look with interest and confidence on the writing fraternity and gained a liking for it which I have never lost.

When I first tried to make speeches, Louis Howe impressed on me the fact that I could be of great help to Franklin if I handled them well. Afterwards he would say to me, "You were terrible. There was nothing funny - why did you laugh?" That laugh of mine was only nervousness, of course. I've managed to control it, but now and then I lapse, and every time it happens, I remember Louis Howe.

He said to me, about speaking, "Think out what you want to say, and when you've said it, sit down. Just talk." I still do it that way.

Economic Prosperity in the United States: 1919-1929 (Answer Commentary)

Women in the United States in the 1920s (Answer Commentary)

Volstead Act and Prohibition (Answer Commentary)

The Ku Klux Klan (Answer Commentary)

Classroom Activities by Subject

(1) Jean Edward Smith, FDR (2007) page 92

(2) Julie M Fenster, FDR's Shadow: Louis Howe, the Force that Shaped Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt (2009) page 26

(3) Alfred Brooks Rollins, Roosevelt and Howe (1962) page 78

(4) Lela Stiles, The Man behind Roosevelt: The Story of Louis McHenry Howe (1954) page 12

(5) Julie M Fenster, FDR's Shadow: Louis Howe, the Force that Shaped Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt (2009) page 48

(6) Frank Freidel, The Apprenticeship (1952) page 157

(7) Lela Stiles, The Man behind Roosevelt: The Story of Louis McHenry Howe (1954) page 39

(8) Patrick Renshaw, Franklin D. Roosevelt (2004) page 30

(9) Eleanor Roosevelt, The Autobiography of Eleanor Roosevelt (1937) page 111

(10) Jean Edward Smith, FDR (2007) page 93

(11) Frank Freidel, The Apprenticeship (1952) page 193

(12) Frances Perkins, The Roosevelt I Knew (1946) page 35

(13) Josephus Daniels, Wilson Era (1944) page 124

(14) Eleanor Roosevelt, The Autobiography of Eleanor Roosevelt (1937) page 73

(15) Elliott Roosevelt, Untold Story (1973) page 22

(16) Josephus Daniels, Wilson Era (1944) page 128

(17) Franklin D. Roosevelt, quoted in The Washington Post (30th April, 1913)

(18) Geoffrey C Ward, A First-Class Temperament: The Emergence of Franklin Roosevelt, 1905-1928 (1989) page 590

(19) Eleanor Roosevelt, The Autobiography of Eleanor Roosevelt (1937) page 117

(20) Jean Edward Smith, FDR (2007) page 197

(21) John Gunther, Roosevelt in Retrospect (1950) page 250

(22) Eleanor Roosevelt, New York Times (8th October, 1944)

(23) Eleanor Roosevelt, The Autobiography of Eleanor Roosevelt (1937) pages 124-125

(24) Jean Edward Smith, FDR (2007) pages 231-233

(25) Franklin D. Roosevelt, nomination address (2nd July, 1932)

(26) William E. Leuchtenburg, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal (1963) page 10

(27) John Gunther, Roosevelt in Retrospect (1950) page 92

(28) Jean Edward Smith, FDR (2007) page 281

(29) Herbert Hoover, speech in Detroit (25th October, 1932)

(30) William E. Roosevelt and the New Deal (1963) page 16

(31) Herbert Hoover, speech in Saint Paul (5th November, 1932)

(32) William E. Roosevelt and the New Deal (1963) page 17

(33) Arthur M. Schlesinger, The Coming of the New Deal (1958) page 515

(34) Julie M Fenster, FDR's Shadow: Louis Howe, the Force that Shaped Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt (2009) page 222

(35) Patrick Renshaw, Franklin D. Roosevelt (2004) page 82

(36) Louis Brandeis, letter to Felix Frankfurter (3rd March, 1933)

(37) Patrick Renshaw, Franklin D. Roosevelt (2004) page 85

(38) Joseph P. Lash, Dealers and Dreamers (1988) page 107

(39) Jean Edward Smith, FDR (2007) page 312

(40) Franklin D. Roosevelt, radio broadcast (12th March, 1933)

(41) William E. Leuchtenburg, The FDR Years (1995) page 63

(42) John C. Hyde, American Dreamer: A Life of Henry A. Wallace (2001) page 123

(43) Jean Edward Smith, FDR (2007) page 329

(44) Frances Perkins, The Roosevelt I Knew (1946) page 112

(45) Arthur M. Schlesinger, Coming of the New Deal (1958) page 15

(46) Eleanor Roosevelt, The Autobiography of Eleanor Roosevelt (1937) page 175

(47) Jean Edward Smith, FDR (2007) page 330

(48) Joseph P. Lash, Dealers and Dreamers (1988) page 219

(49) John C. Wallace (2001) page 154

(50) Sidney Baldwin, Poverty and Politics: The Rise and Decline of the Farm Security Administration (1968) page 82

(51) Rexford Tugwell, diary entry (10th February, 1935)

(52) Rexford Tugwell, diary entry (27th February, 1935)

(53) Felix Frankfurter, letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt (19th March, 1935)

(54) David McKean, Peddling Influence (2004) page 35

(55) Frank Freidel, Franklin D. Roosevelt: A Rendezvous with Destiny (1990) page 197

(56) Eleanor Roosevelt, This I Remember (1949) page 145

John Simkin


Samuel Gridley Howe

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Samuel Gridley Howe, (born November 10, 1801, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.—died January 9, 1876, Boston), American physician, educator, and abolitionist as well as the founding director of the New-England Institution for the Education of the Blind (later known as the Perkins School for the Blind) and the Massachusetts School for Idiotic and Feeble-Minded Youth. Howe was known particularly for his success in teaching the alphabet to Laura Bridgman, a student who was blind and deaf. He also championed the improvement of publicly funded schools, prison reform, humane treatment for mentally ill people, oral communication and lipreading for the deaf, and antislavery efforts.


What did your Howe ancestors do for a living?

In 1940, Laborer and Housewife were the top reported jobs for men and women in the US named Howe. 13% of Howe men worked as a Laborer and 9% of Howe women worked as a Housewife. Some less common occupations for Americans named Howe were Clerk and Housekeeper .

*We display top occupations by gender to maintain their historical accuracy during times when men and women often performed different jobs.

Top Male Occupations in 1940

Top Female Occupations in 1940


Growing up in the small town of Delaware, Ohio, I overcame feeling dumb, feeling lonely, and being bullied for being in special needs classes by dedicating myself to becoming the best athlete I could be. By my side the whole way was my dad supporting me, coaching me, and cheering me on… he was my best friend and my greatest coach.

“This is one of the most important topics today that seemingly no one is talking about: how men can take care of their emotional health in a 21st century that demands it. Crucial reading for any young or struggling man.”

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“For everyone who wants to live a great life-one filled with energy, meaning, and purpose-Lewis Howes provides The School of Greatness. It’s a terrific resource with accessible, practical suggestions for transforming our lives.”

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“The road to mastery requires studying under a master. This book follows the author as he apprentices under more than a dozen great men and women, each a master in their own way.”

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“This is one of the most important topics today that seemingly no one is talking about: how men can take care of their emotional health ina 21st century that demands it. Crucial reading for any young or struggling man.”

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“The rigid ideas of culture teaches us about masculinity and femininity make it nearly impossible for real men and women to truly see and love each other. For men who want to free themselves from cultural cages, Howes’s book is a life changer. For women who want to offer the men in their lives permission to be fully human, The Mask of Masculinity is a vital tool. This book has the power to change lives, relationships, and our culture.”

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“Lewis’s raw truth of what it’s like to be raised as a male athlete in today’s world is exactly what we need to hear. I want every football player (and athlete) to read this book so they can understand what’s possible when they take the helmet off.”

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“In his new book, The Mask of Masculinity, Lewis Howes gives us permission to honor our vulnerability so we can create deeper connections and live a better life. There’s nothing sexier than our authentic truth and this book helps us harness it! Lewis transcends gender in this book- it’s just as much for women as it is for men.”

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“For women, reading this book will help them to understand the men in their lives on a much deeper level and show them ways that they can support the men they love.”

Gretchen Rubin

“Lewis Howes is going to help a lot of men with this book.”

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“Lewis blends vulnerability, insight, and profound courage to a conversation so deeply needed in this pivotal time of dismantling a stifling and violent patriarchy. May his integrated voice echo loudly and widely as an invitation to provide more freedom and love within masculinity.”


History

One of the last phases to face the Dearborn Public School system, in the post-war era was the building of the Louis W. Howe School on Oakwood Boulevard in September 1955. Designed by Jahr-Anderson Associates of Detroit, the building featured a walk-through classroom system instead of long corridors or hallways. It was intended to relieve overcrowding in Snow School as well as Ten Eyck School, around which, the Oakwood Hospital was beginning to be built. With the declining enrollment of the 1970's the Superintendent, Anthony Witham became involved in the selection of schools to be closed. Howe was one suggested first, however, after a school board meeting, it was left open. By 1978, however, the enrollment had declined to the point of its closure. The building is now used as a facility for the mild-mentally disabled by the Dearborn Public Schools.
Howe was named in honor of Louis W. Howe, one of Dearborn's pioneers. Louis Howe, was the son of Elba Howe, a station agent for the Michigan Central Railroad in Dearbornville, and the communities first undertaker. Born in 1873, in Dearborn, he served as township clerk and treasurer and then village clerk and treasurer after the incorporation of the Village. He was personally responsible for conducting the 1900 census in Dearborn and served on the school board from 1918 to 1924, was a charter member of the Dearborn Rotary Club and served as a Master of the Masonic Lodge. Howe followed his father, serving as a volunteer fire chief, an insurance salesman, and a funeral director. His wife, Jennie Clark, was the daughter of William Clark, by whom the Clark School was named.


Cool Cave Tours

Are you ready for a fun and affordable family day out? How about a vacation full of learning for all ages? Whether you live in New York and want to take a day trip, or you are driving through the area looking for a fun affordable family vacation, Howe Caverns is one of the most exciting NYS attractions. Your family can spend the day or several days in the park and experience Howe Caverns above and below ground!

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Lois Lilley Howe Photographic Collection, (1884-1912)

Acquisition: Formal accession records for the collection are lacking, but it is believed to have been the gift of Lois Lilley Howe.

Access: Access to the negatives is restricted. Access to the collection is primarily through the prints, the sleeve notes, and the item list in the finding aid. The finding aid is located in Box 6, Folder 1.

Permission to Publish: Requests for permission to publish from the collection should be made to the Executive Director.

Copyright: The Cambridge Historical Society does not hold copyright on the materials in the collection.


Biographical Sketch

Lois Lilley Howe, architect, was born in Cambridge, Mass. on 25 September 1864, the daughter of Estes Howe, a physician turned real estate speculator, and Lois Lilly [sic] White. The Howe family was socially well-connected, and active in civic, abolitionist, and literary circles. This background not only contributed to Lois Lilley Howe’s intellectual development, but it also introduced her into a well-heeled society whose patronage would later prove critical to her entry into the male-dominated architectural profession. Her earliest exposure to that profession came purely by geographical accident. She grew up at one Oxford Street, where she could witness firsthand the construction of Harvard’s Memorial Hall (1870-78), an event which left an indelible impression on her imagination.

Howe received her equivalency certificate from Cambridge High School, and then studied design at the Museum of Fine Arts School (1882-1886). At about this time, a cousin who was a chemist visited the Howes, bringing along his camera and tripod: this was LLH’s first introduction to dry plate photography. Upon her father’s death in 1887, the family home at one Oxford Street was sold to the Reverend Francis Peabody. Peabody’s brother, the architect Robert Swain Peabody, was retained to remodel the house, and Howe so impressed him with her suggestions for the redesign of an awkward stairway that he encouraged her talent and became her mentor. The Howe family meanwhile purchased land at 2 Appleton Street and asked a family friend, Francis Chandler, of Cabot and Chandler, to design them a new house (destined to become LLH’s lifelong home). Howe’s exposure to architectural work at close quarters dispelled whatever doubts she may have entertained as to her choice of career. She was admitted to the “Harvard Annex” (later renamed Radcliffe), but opted instead to enroll in the two-year “partial course” offered by the MIT School of Architecture. The only woman in a class of 65 males, she completed the program in 1890. In 1892, while employed as a draftsman and librarian, she garnered her first public recognition with an honorable mention for her design for the Women’s Pavilion at the World’s Columbian Exhibition. The $500 prize money paid for her and her family’s passage to Europe, where they toured for 15 months. After her return home, in 1893 she opened what would soon become the only all-female architectural firm in Boston, and one of the earliest in America. In 1894 she designed her first house, the Alfred C. Potter residence at 1 Kennedy Road, Cambridge. Photographs of both the Potter house and the Potter family are found in this collection.

As Howe’s practice grew, her firm expanded: becoming successively Lois Lilley Howe & Manning in 1913, and then Howe, Manning & Almy in 1926, as draftsmen Eleanor Manning and Mary Almy were taken on a partners. The firm is best known for its largely Colonial Revival domestic architecture, with its emphasis on “comfort, convenience and practicality.” The general economic downturn, and Howe’s own advancing age (then 73) led the firm to disband in 1937, with her partners launching separate practices. Over its forty-three year history, the Howe firm executed some 426 commissions, about a fifth of which were located in Cambridge, many in the Brattle Street area.

Howe was the first woman to be elected a fellow of the American Institute of Architects among her numerous other professional and social affiliations, two are of local note. She was second Vice President of the Cambridge Historical Society and contributed many articles to its Proceedings. Howe also served as President of the Cambridge Plant Club from 1938 to 1947.


Related Collections:

The Howe, Manning & Almy Papers, 1883-1972, are held at the MIT Institute Archives and Special Collections, and include photographs as well as Howe’s early personal papers, scrapbooks, sketches, and watercolors.

A few letters written by Lois Lilley Howe figure in the E.E. Cummings Papers and the Arthur Stanley Pease Correspondence held at Houghton Library, Harvard University.

Cambridge Plant and Garden Club, Records, 1889-1991 are held at Schlesinger Library, Harvard University.

Cole, Doris and Karen Cord Taylor. The Lady Architects: Lois Lilley Howe, Eleanor Manning and Mary Almy: 1893-1937. New York: Midmarch Arts Press, 1990.

Garraty, John A. and Mark C. Carnes, eds., American National Biography, New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Harkness. Marjory Gane. The Tamworth Narrative (New Hampshire). Freeport, Maine: Bond Wheelwright, 1958.

Howe, Lois Lilley. “Memories of Nineteenth Century Cambridge,” Proceedings of the Cambridge Historical Society, 34: 59-76, 1952.

Howe, Lois Lilley. Last Will and Testament, 1960.

Julyan, Robert, and Mary Julyan. Place Names of the White Mountains (rev. ed). Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1993.

Nathanson, Larry. “Lois Lilley Howe: 1864-1964. The Woman, Her Time, and Accomplishments.” (His notes for a talk presented to the Cambridge Historical Society, October 15, 2000.)

Who Was Who in America, with World Notables, vol. 4, Chicago: Marquis-Who’s Who, Inc., 1968.


Scope and Content Note:

(Due to length and the distinctive nature of the materials described, this note has been divided into two sections, one for Series I-III, and a second for Series IV-V.)

Series I-III. The bulk of the collection consists of a total of 282 glass photographic negatives taken, with only a few known exceptions, by Lois Lilley Howe between 1892 and 1912. Most measure either 4”x5” (159) or 5”x7” (110), with a few large-format 8”x10” plates (12). (A small number were misleadingly labeled “glass positives” or “lantern slides.”) There is also one celluloid negative sandwiched in glass. (An earlier CHS inventory refers to “10 celluloid negatives” and “2 batches of 5࡭ celluloid negatives, stuck together,” which no longer appear to exist.)

About 135 of the negatives have associated prints, apparently made when the collection was first processed by the Cambridge Historical Society. At that time, the negatives were also resleeved in paper or glassine envelopes, but documentation of the date and work plan of that procedure is lacking. The disintegrating text of the original sleeves was retained, which is fortunate as Howe’s florid script led to many poor transcriptions. These sleeve labels, on highly acidic paper, are variously annotated with date, subject, place, and technical details of equipment, exposure, and development.

According to the terms of Howe’s will, materials relating to her architectural firm were bequeathed to her former partners, and these ultimately made their way to the Institute Archives at MIT, Howe’s alma mater. The 1912 cut-off date of this photographic collection may relate to the 1913 incorporation of her firm, to her abandonment of dry plate photography, or to some other unknown cause.

The negatives are sufficiently dated and annotated to chronicle Howe’s developing skills as a photographer, as well as her expanding range in subject matter. Her themes reflect her personal, artistic, and professional interests. Her early artistic themes are typical of the period. These include several studies of a laurel-wreathed young man, Lydiard Horton (listed in the city directory as a Latin High School student), as well as others of a young woman in colonial dress, a biblically robed maiden with a jug, and a naked child in a woodland setting. Howe’s interest in gardening is reflected in some twenty studies of flowers: Japanese Iris, Hollyhocks, Cinnamon Roses, Lilacs, etc. taken indoors and out. Throughout the collection, fire and fireplaces, whether in the form of an autumn bonfire, campfire, or the household hearth, are a recurrent theme, and may relate to Colonial Revival ideas of hearth-centered domesticity.

Howe’s professional, personal, and photographic life were deeply intertwined, and the client list to be found in The Lady Architects is the single most useful source in identifying the people and places depicted in the collection. For example, the photograph labeled “Primroses—Schoonerhead—August 1898” may correlate with renovations undertaken for Robert W. Hale at Schooner Head, Bar Harbor, Me. in 1897. Howe’s friends were also her clients, and she often both photographed them and designed their homes, as was the case of the Alfred C. Potter family.

While some pictures of people have a casual quality, others are carefully staged portraits. Sleeve annotations such as “Roger Twitchell in his crib… 4 platinum prints Mrs.…Twitchell” suggest that her talents were recognized by her social circle, but there is no evidence that she pursued photography commercially. At least three negatives (5.037a, 5.037.1a, 5.037.2a) appear to depict Howe herself.

About three dozen photographs document, often highly repetitively, scenes of holidays spent ca. 1895-1906 in Tamworth, N.H., where a summer colony of Harvard faculty had grown up around Mount Chocorua. Dates indicate visits as early April and possibly as late as December, but most were taken in July and September. Howe appears to have been a frequent house guest of the Dr. Edward and Elizabeth Twitchell family, as many of the photographs depict their four children: Paul S., Helen, Roger T., and Margaret (all of whom were named as beneficiaries in Howe’s will). Among these are the consciously artistic studies of the naked child Roger Twitchell, and the idyllic group “Going to the Spring,” with Mount Chocorua in the background. The Twitchell’s rustic summer home, a “rough house built in the nineties,” was also much photographed, inside and out. While little is known of Howe’s relation to the Twitchells, there is a listing for a Mrs. Elizabeth Twitchell on Bond Street in the Cambridge Blue Book (1928). Howe’s architectural interests are further reflected in several scenes of weather-beaten New Hampshire farmhouses and of a new, shingle-style summer home named “Knollcroft.” The portraits of “Mr. Crothers” are believed to be of Dr. Samuel McChord Crothers, longtime minister of the First Parish in Cambridge (1894-1927), who summered in nearby Madison, N.H. “Mr. Liberty sawing wood” may depict the local woodsman James Liberty, who was the namesake of Liberty Trail and Jim Liberty Cabin on Mount Chocorua.

Another thirty-three negatives depict rural and urban landscapes along and near the Charles River from Dover to East Cambridge, Mass. (ca. 1896-1900), and are of considerable documentary value. Two are labeled as having been “exhibited in competition November 9, 1898.” Of particular local interest is “Coolidge Farm: Men, with City in the Distance,” which shows the distant steepled skyline of Harvard Square viewed across field and river.

A third (about 100) of the negatives are of purely architectural subjects. A few of these are of exceptional historical interest, such as early views of the oldest house in Cambridge, the Cooper-Frost-Austin House. Several of the house photographs have been reproduced by the Cambridge Historical Commission, and many have been annotated and identified by later researchers in terms different from Howe’s own captions. The studies of domestic interiors often bear the names of known architectural clients (as Alfred C. Potter, Mrs. A. M. Griswold, Thomas Mott Osborne), but no obviously labeled “before” and “after” views were noted. The photograph of the Longfellow Barn appears to be related to her Colonial Revival design for the carriage house at Elmwood (now owned by Harvard University). Howe was a strong advocate of the use of photography and measured drawings in the design work of her firm.

Series IV-V. Series IV consists of approximately 100 photographs either created or collected by Lois Lilley Howe. An additional 31 photographs, most of them clearly taken by Howe, have been transferred from the Cambridge Image Collection and incorporated here in folders 2-3, as more properly belonging to the Howe Collection. With few exceptions (mainly the exhibition prints), the images in Series IV do not appear to derive from negatives found elsewhere in the collection.

This series represents a wide variety of sizes and print types, from mounted prints to simple snapshots, and even post cards. The arrangement adopted here reflects Howe’s familiar subject matter: Houses, Interiors, Landscapes, and People. Houses consist of some 89 images of houses, buildings, and architectural details, including a few commercial postcards. Many are mounted on pages torn from albums, or show glue traces on the reverse side. These album pages give evidence of having been methodically organized by Howe according to the architectural style of the house, doorway, fence, etc., depicted. The only captioned Interior views depict “Elmwood,” birthplace of James Russell Lowell, and the home office of Dr. C. C. Foster. Landscapes include 17 Charles River views, several depicting the working waterfront of tugboats, gasworks, and factories as it existed before the damming of the Charles River Basin. Also in this folder are bucolic and woodlands scenes. People include portraits of Cambridge Photographic Club members and possibly some Howe relatives. A cabinet card depicts an unidentified young man in elaborate uniform with a horsehair-plumed helmet (under magnification, the coat buttons are dated 1886).

The majority of Series IV is believed to be the work of Lois Lilley Howe, either alone, or in a few clearly labeled cases, in collaboration with James A. Wells. However, it seems probable that some of the material (particularly the Charles River views) was collected by Howe, but created by members of the Cambridge Photographic Club. Howe’s membership in this club, and her longstanding ties to C.H.S., make provenance difficult to determine. The problem is further aggravated by the lack of labeling and formal accession records. One large format (13”x20”) carbon print of 12 members of the Vaughan and Abbot families in theatrical costumes has been stored separately in drawer 4 of the map case due to size. This photograph is of uncertain provenance, but bears an Old Cambridge Photographic Club label and presumably came to C.H.S. through Howe.

Several Harvard yearbook photographs were removed from Series IV to the Cambridge Image Collection, Portrait Series. Also transferred to the Cambridge Image Collection was one woodland scene marked Gift of Miss Margaret Norton, which had no obvious connection to Los Lilley Howe.

Series V consists of drawings and plans, published and unpublished. The manuscript drawings of the Hastings-Holmes house (birthplace of Oliver Wendell Holmes), and of an old house that stood on the site of Hastings Hall, Harvard Law School, were done in 1884-85. They represent Howe’s earliest dated work in the collection, and were done several years before she began her formal architectural training at M.I.T. These drawings document significant Cambridge structures no longer standing, and were made at a time when making records of threatened Colonial buildings was still relatively novel. Also in this series is a signed copy of Details from Old New England Houses, measured and drawn by Lois L. Howe and Constance Fuller (1913). While this does not appear to have been Howe’s personal copy, it was incorporated into the collection some time ago by the Cambridge Historical Society.

Two photographs and one postcard of old doorways were glued to the back of architectural drawings of doorways in Kennebunkport, Maine and are found in Box 8, folder 4. Traced drawings of stairway details are filed in an oversized folder in drawer 4 of the map case.

Series VI consists of a folder of genealogical materials. Included is a partially completed pedigree chart, assorted genealogical notes regarding the Pomeroy and Spelman families, a newspaper clipping regarding the Spelman coat of arms, one bond of a Samuel Pomeroy dated 1797, and two copies of a biographical sketch of Lois Lilley Howe written for her M.I.T. Fiftieth Class Reunion in 1890.

Arrangement of Series I-III

Maintaining the context of the interrelated glass negative and print material, while also providing for both preservation and access has necessitated a fairly elaborate arrangement, which requires a word of explanation. When processing began in February 2005, corresponding negatives, prints, and original sleeve notes were interfiled together, but otherwise in no discernible order. Some items bore evidence of an earlier, but unfinished, numbering scheme, probably imposed by C.H.S. This scheme is exemplified by P-1.1 to P-1.71 for pictures of people, and P-3.1 to P-3.31 for pictures of houses. Other portions of the collection bore simpler numbers (nos. 1-50), or were unnumbered. These earlier numbers have been recorded in square brackets in the item descriptions.

In the present arrangement, the interfiled sets of related negatives, annotated sleeves, and prints were separated, assigned corresponding control numbers, and placed in parallel series. Each control number is followed by a suffix that indicates negative and print size (a= 4”x5” b=5”x7” c=8”x10”). In a few instances, inadvertent gaps occurred in the control number sequence these have been indicated in the finding aid by the note “Number Not Used.”

Series I consists of glass negatives arranged in five subseries: Flowers (nos. 1.01-1.31), Houses (nos. 2.01-2.61), Interiors (nos. 3.01-3.46), Landscapes (nos. 4.01-4.38), and People (nos. 5.001-5.106). Within each subseries, arrangement is alphabetical by subject. Physical arrangement of the negatives in the storage containers is first by size (a, b, or c), then by number. Thus, negative 2.01a is filed in the 4”x5” box, while negative 2.02c is in the 8”x10” box. Access to this series is restricted.

Series II consists of silver gelatin prints. These are filed in the archival binder box first by size (a, b, c) and then by number. The control numbers appear on the back of each print and are enclosed in a rectangle to distinguish them from earlier numbering schemes. In the item list, the abbreviations P and NP are used to indicate whether a “Print” or “No Print” exists for the negative.

Series III consists of photocopies of the annotated negative sleeves. Acidic sleeves were photocopied on archival quality paper and filed by control number in folders. Notes by Howe herself were generally written on old fashioned, pre-printed Kraft paper envelopes, and are distinguishable by her florid script. Later notations by others were generally on newer glassine envelopes. A sample of the best-preserved original sleeves was kept, but most were discarded after photocopying, as too brittle for preservation.


Library of Congress Subject Headings

  • Howe, Lois Lilley, 1864-1964.
  • Twitchell family —Photographs.
  • Architecture — Massachusetts — Cambridge — Photographs.
  • Historic buildings — Massachusetts — Cambridge — Photographs.
  • Cambridge (Mass.) — Photographs.
  • Cambridge (Mass.) —Buildings, structures, etc. —Photographs.
  • Tamworth Region (N.H.) —Photographs.


Howe, Lois Lilley, 1864-1964. Photographic Collection, 1884-1912
Series Description and Folder Listing

Series I. Negatives

Identification of subjects, titles, and data for the negatives were derived from Howe’s sleeve notes, later researchers’ annotations, and published sources. Material in quotation marks was taken from the sleeve notes text in brackets was supplied by the processor. Names have been standardized: R. Twitchell, R.T.T., and Roger Twitchell have all been rendered as Roger T. Twitchell. Sleeve notes were not fully transcribed, and these should be consulted to confirm conjectural readings and for fuller information. As noted above, earlier item numbers have been recorded in square brackets, e.g., [P-3.32] or [47].

Box 1 Size a (4”x5”) negatives
Box 2-3 Size b (5”x7”) negatives
Box 4 Size c (8”x10”) negatives

Negative Number and Size (a,b,c) Subseries A. Flowers Print/No Print
1.01a Arrowhead [flower] [1] East Billerica, Mass., August 1898 NP
1.02a Cinnamon Roses on Whittemore Wall [10] Chocorua, N.H., 3 July 1906 NP
1.03a Cinnamon Roses by Miss [Walling’s?] Barn [11] Chocorua, N.H., 3 July 1906 NP
1.04b 5.7 Dandelions [Broken corner on negative] Wood’s Hole, Mass., May 1910 NP
1.05a [Flowers and Picket Fence] [4] NP
1.06a Flowers [Broken corner on negative] NP
1.07a Hollyhock- large [8] 1895? NP
1.08a Hollyhocks I [12] 7 July 1895 NP
1.09a Hollyhocks [13] NP
1.10a Hollyhocks [14] July 1896 NP
1.11a [Lay’s?] Hollyhock [15] “Probably taken with the Euryscope Lens & Hawkeye Camera in July ’95” Developed May 1898 NP
1.12a Hollyhocks [20] “Probably taken with the Euryscope Lens & Hawkeye Camera in July ’95” Developed May 1898 NP
1.13a [Japanese Iris?] [3] [July 1898?] NP
1.14a Japanese Iris I [5] July 1898 NP
1.15a Japanese Iris II [9] July 1898 NP
1.16a Japanese Iris II [6] July 1898 NP
1.17a Joe Pye Weed [2] East Billerica, Mass., August 1898 NP
1.18a Lilies [17] Cambridge, Mass., 1898 NP
1.19a Miss Swan’s Lilies I. Best [16] July 1898 NP
1.20a Mullein [7] Berkshire County, Mass, 1898 NP
1.21a Mullein [21] “Glass positive” NP
1.22a Mullein [19] “Glass positive” 1899 NP
1.23b [Horsford’s?] [narcissus or daffodils] NP
1.24b Poet’s Narcissus April 1910 NP
1.25a Primroses [18] Schooner Head, Maine, August 1898 NP
1.26b Couronne d’[Or?] Tulips “in cream colored bowl” 27 March 1910 NP
1.27b Gold [Finch] Tulips in Yellow Pot—closed Cambridge, Mass., 27 March 1910 NP
1.28b Gold [Finch] Tulips in Yellow Pot—wide open Cambridge, Mass., 27 March 1910 NP
1.29b [Pot of Tulips] 27 March 1910 NP
1.30b [Tulip] Cambridge, Mass., March 1910 NP
1.31b Yellow Tulips—wide open “Gold Finch” NP
Subseries B. Houses
2.01a Arsenal Gate [P 12.5] Watertown, Mass. P
2.02c House, exterior side view [P-3.15] 128 Brattle Street, Cambridge, Mass. P
2.03c House, exterior rear view [P-3.16] 128 Brattle Street, Cambridge, Mass. P
2.04b Brewster Gate, 1 of 2 [P-3.4] 20 May 1906 P
2.05b Brewster Gate, 2 of 2 [P-3.5] 20 May 1906 P
2.06a Astor Cary barn door [P-3.32] June 1892 P
2.07a Old Cottage—front [P 3.12] [Watson House, now 30 Elmwood] [Cook-Lerned House formerly at 2463 Massachusetts Avenue.] “Printed by CHC 1980” North Cambridge, Mass., c.1900 P
2.08a Old Cottage—back [P 3.13] Cook-Lerned House, 2463 Massachusetts Avenue. North Cambridge, Mass., c.1900 P
2.09a Cooper-Frost-Austin House [P 3.7] 21 Linnean Street, Cambridge, Mass. P
2.10a Cooper-Frost-Austin House [P 3.8] 21 Linnean Street, Cambridge, Mass. P
2.11a Cooper-Frost-Austin House, 1901 [P 3.9] “Print 1911.” 21 Linnean Street, Cambridge, Mass. P
2.12b Crothers’ [rustic summer home, exterior] Chocorua, N. H., September 1909 NP
2.13a C. W. Eliot House—Porch [P-3.3] 25 Reservoir Street, Cambridge, Mass., c.1902 P
2.14a C. W. Eliot House—South [P 3.19] 25 Reservoir Street, Cambridge, Mass., May 1902 P
2.15a C. W. Eliot House—South West [P 3.18] 25 Reservoir Street, Cambridge, Mass., May 1902 P
2.16a Mrs. A. M. Griswold’s House [P 3.26] “Wrong side of plate” 25 Craigie Street, Cambridge, Mass., 190[1?] P
2.17c Mrs. A. M. Griswold’s house—exterior front view [P-3.17] 25 Craigie Street, Cambridge, Mass. — April 1902 P
2.18a Mrs. A. M. Griswold’s House [P 3.27] “Printed by CHC” 25 Craigie Street, Cambridge, Mass., 1903 P
2.22a Howe House—front [P 3.6] 11 Fayerweather Street, Cambridge, Mass., 30 April 1900 P
2.23a Howe House—front [P 3.30] 11 Fayerweather Street, Cambridge, Mass., 30 April 1900 P
2.24b L. L. Howe House? [P-3.2] [2 Appleton Street, Cambridge, Mass.?] 1910 P
2.25a House on James Street—“Approx. 79 1/ 2 Brattle” [P 3.14] “After 1818, Demolished by 1904.” “Printed by CHC” Celluloid negative sandwiched in glass. P
2.26b “Jaundice Hall” [P-3.1] [A house, presumably yellow] Elmwood [Avenue, Cambridge, Mass.?] NP
2.27a “Knollcroft” [house] [44] “Side view, near to” Wonalancet, N.H., September 1897 NP
2.28a Longfellow Barn I [P 3.31] Cambridge, Mass., 10 July 1895 P
2.29a 3.36 Longfellow Barn II [P 3.10] Cambridge, Mass., 10 July 1895 P
2.30a Nutting Place—Front Gate, open [P 3.22] Cambridge, Mass., 25 May 1905 P
2.31a Nutting Place—Back Gate, large [P 3.23] Cambridge, Mass., 25 May 1905 P
2.32a Nutting Place—Back Gate, small [P 3.24] Cambridge, Mass., 1905 May 25 P
2.33a Nutting Place—Front Gate, closed [P 3.25] Cambridge, Mass., 25 May 1905 P
2.34a [Farmhouse with barn on a rise] [46] NP
2.35a View of Country House [42] [Chocorua, N.H.?] NP
2.36a House and Cornfield on Butler’s Bridge Road [47] Chocorua, N.H., September 1900 NP
2.37a House on Butler’s Bridge Road [48] [Picturesque farmhouse with lean-to and ell] Chocorua, N.H., September 1900 NP
2.38a View of Country House [43] “Distant front” Wonalancet, N.H. NP
2.39a Wonalancet- First View in Winter of April 1895 [45] April 1895 NP
2.40a Alfred C. Potter House [P 3.20] 1897 P
2.41a Alfred C. Potter House —exterior [P 3.11] P
2.42a Alfred C. Potter House [P 3.21] “Taken, I think, by the Potters.” P
2.43b Twitchell’s House Chocorua, N. H. NP
2.44a Twitchell’s House—approach Chocorua, N.H. NP
2.45a Twitchell’s House—back Chocorua, N.H., [May?] 1901 NP
2.46b Twitchell’s House—from southeast Chocorua, N. H., September 1904 NP
2.47a Twitchell’s House—appletree porch “fogged” Chocorua, N.H., 1 July 1906 NP
2.48b Twitchell’s House—appletree porch Chocorua, N. H. NP
2.49b Twitchell Porch “cracked” Chocorua, N. H. NP
2.50a Twitchell’s House—appletree porch [50] “Teddy in Tree” [cat?] Chocorua, N.H., 1 July 1900 NP
2.51a Twitchell’s House—appletree porch, P.M. Chocorua, N.H., 3 July 1906 NP
2.52b Twitchell’s House—appletree porch Chocorua, N. H. NP
2.53a Twitchell’s House—porch, P.M. Chocorua, N.H., 3 July 1906 NP
2.54a Twitchell’s House—porch, A.M. “Slipped slide partly out of holder before taking photograph” Chocorua, N.H., 3 July 1906 NP
2.55b Twitchell’s House—porch [rustic arbor] Chocorua, N. H., 14 September 1906 NP
2.56b Twitchell’s House—appletree porch, P.M. Chocorua, N.H., 14 September 1906 NP
2.57b “Roger [Twitchell]’s house” [shingled hut in woods] Chocorua, N. H., 6 September 1906 NP
2.58a Wadsworth House—rear [P 3.28] Cambridge, Mass., 4 April 1900 P
2.59a Wadsworth House—east side [P 3.29] Cambridge, Mass., 4 April 1900 P
2.60b Unidentified House—side view [Photograph of a photograph?] NP
2.61b Miss Howe Chocorua, N. H., 1910 NP
Subseries C. Interiors
3.01b Booth House—bedroom, 6 [P-4.1] 19 Berkeley Street, Cambridge, Mass. P
3.02b Booth House—dining room, 4 [P-4.2] 19 Berkeley Street, Cambridge, Mass., 6 May 1906 NP
3.03b Booth House—“Study for Miss Howe” [P-4.3] 19 Berkeley Street, Cambridge, Mass., 1906 NP
3.04b Booth House—parlor, 1 [P-4.4] 19 Berkeley Street, Cambridge, Mass., 1906 P
3.05b Booth House—from hall, 3 [P-4.5] 19 Berkeley Street, Cambridge, Mass., 1906 P
3.06b Booth House—hall from parlor, 2 [P-4.6] 19 Berkeley Street, Cambridge, Mass., 1906 P
3.07b Crothers’[rustic interior] Chocorua, N. H., September 1909 NP
3.08b Crothers’ [rustic interior with fireplace] Chocorua, N. H., 1910 NP
3.09a Mrs. A. M. Griswold’s parlor [P-4.30] 25 Craigie Street, Cambridge, Mass. April 1902 P
3.10a Mrs. A. M. Griswold’s parlor [P-4.31] April 1902 P
3.11a Mrs. A. M. Griswold’s parlor (upright) [P-4.32] Cambridge, Mass. — May 1902 P
3.11.1b Mrs. A. M. Griswold’s House [P-4.16] 25 Craigie Street, Cambridge, Mass., 1903 P
3.11.2b Mrs. A. M. Griswold’s House [P-4.17] 25 Craigie Street, Cambridge, Mass., 1903 P
3.11.3b Mrs. A. M. Griswold’s House [P-4.18] 25 Craigie Street, Cambridge, Mass., 1903 P
3.12a Clara’s Room [P-4.33] [possibly Clara Howe, half-sister to LLH] [Cambridge, Mass.], January 1895 P
3.13b G. B. Maynadier House—dining room with hall, 2 [P-4.10] 49 Hawthorne Street, Cambridge, Mass, 1903 NP
3.14b G. B. Maynadier House—dining room, 1 [P-4.11] 49 Hawthorne Street, Cambridge, Mass., 1903 NP
3.15b G. B. Maynadier House—dining room, 3 [P-4.9] 49 Hawthorne Street, Cambridge, Mass., 1903 P
3.16a Thomas Mott Osborne House—hall and parlor [P-4.34] November 1893 P
3.17a Thomas Mott Osborne House—library [P-4.29] November 1893 P
3.18a Alfred C. Potter House—hall [P-4.35] Fayerweather St., Cambridge, Mass. [Kennedy St per directory?] P
3.19b Alfred C. Potter House—hall [P-4.7] “Negative by Mr. Hutchinson” 55 Fayerweather Street, Cambridge, Mass. P
3.20b Alfred C. Potter House—hall [P-4.8] “Negative by Mr. Hutchinson” 55 Fayerweather Street, Cambridge, Mass. P
3.21a Twitchell’s House—interior Chocorua, N.H., May 1901 NP
3.22b Twitchell’s House—cot corner, oblong Chocorua, N. H., September 1904 NP
3.23b Twitchell’s House—cot [i.e., hammock] corner Chocorua, N. H., September 1904 NP
3.24b Twitchell’s House—dining room Chocorua, N. H., 7 September 1903 NP
3.25b Twitchell’s House—dining-room corner Chocorua, N. H., September 1903 NP
3.26b Number Not Used NP
3.27b Twitchell’s living room, with fireplace and cot Chocorua, N. H., September 1906 NP
3.28b Twitchell’s living room, with fireplace and stairs “very dark rainy day” Chocorua, N. H., 13 September 1906 NP
3.29b Twitchell’s House—sitting room corner Chocorua, N. H., September 1903 NP
3.30b Twitchell’s House—stairs Chocorua, N. H., September 190[?] NP
3.31b Twitchell’s House—with stairway and fireplace Chocorua, N. H. NP
3.32b Twitchell’s house—staircase Chocorua, N. H., September 1904 NP
3.33b Interior with fireplace [P-4.12] P
3.34b Interior with fireplace [P-4.13] P
3.35b Interior [P-4.14] P
3.36b Interior with stairs [P-4.15] P
3.37c Parlor with fireplace [P-4.19] P
3.38c Parlor with fireplace [P-4.20] P
3.39c Parlor with fireplace [P-4.21] P
3.40c Victorian parlor with gas lamp [P-4.22] P
3.41c Victorian parlor with gas lamp [P-4.25] P
3.42c Victorian parlor with tea setting [P-4.23] P
3.43c Victorian parlor with tea setting [P-4.24] P
3.44c Hallway to stairs [P-4.26] P
3.45c Stairs [P-4.27] P
3.46c Dining room with fireplace [4.28] P
Subseries D. Landscapes
4.01a Charles River—1896 [P 7.18] P
4.02a Charles River—1896 [P 7.36] P
4.03a Charles River with Trees [P 7.37] [Apparently mismatched sleeve says Telegraph Pole] P
4.04a [Charles River?] [P 7.41] P
4.05a Charles River—East Cambridge [P 7.17] P
4.06a Entrance to Coolidge Farm, Willis [Court?] [P 7.34] P
4.07a Coolidge Farm—Apple Trees, Haystacks [P 7.39] “Exhibited in competition November 9, 1898” September 1898 P
4.08a Coolidge Farm—Apple Tree [P 7.40] “Exhibited in competition 11-9-1898” September 1898 P
4.09a Coolidge Farm—Looking Back at Sunset [P 7.42] “Exhibited in competition 11-9-1898” September 1898 P
4.10a Coolidge Farm—Men, with City in Distance [P 7.43] “Exhibited in competition 11-9-1898” September 1898 P
4.11a Coolidge Farm—Stacks and Outhouses [P 7.43] “[Exhibited?] 11-9-1898” September 1898 P
4.12a Glacialis in Winter, 1 of 2 [P 7.23] [Former ice pond near Fresh Pond] Cambridge, Mass. P
4.13a Glacialis in Winter, 2 of 2 [P 7.24] [Former ice pond near Fresh Pond] Cambridge, Mass. P
4.14a Class B—Willows [P 7.16] [Longfellow Park, Cambridge, Mass.] S
4.15a [Longfellow Park] [P 7.35] Cambridge, Mass. P
4.16a Willows at Canton [P 7.25] Canton, Mass., 2 April 1896 P
4.17a Hoar Farm—Pond [P 7.31] Dover, Mass. 25 February 1900 P
4.18 Number Not Used
4.19a Cotton Mill, Waltham [P 12.3] P
4.20a [Cows grazing near dam and mill] [P 7.22] [Waltham, Mass.?] NP
4.21a Charles River—View outside Arsenal [P7.32] Watertown, Mass., 1896 P
4.22a Charles River—Above Arsenal [P 7.19] P
4.23a Charles River—Above Arsenal [P 7.20] P
4.24a Charles River North—Marshes by Arsenal [P 7.21] P
4.25a Arsenal Bridge and [Long K—?] Boiler [P 7.26] P
4.26a Charles River—1896 [P 7.30] [shows what appear to be African-American road menders] P
4.27a Watertown Bridge [12.4] P
4.28a View from Watertown Bridge [P 7.27] P
4.29a Charles River between Bemis and Watertown [P 7.28] P
4.30a Charles River north from Bemis Bridge [P 7.29] October 1896 P
4.31a Charles River North—Meadows below Watertown Dump [P 7.38] P
4.32a Charles River near West Watertown Station [P7.33] Watertown, Mass. P
4.33b “View 7.” [Title illegible] [View of pasture and mountains] NP
4.34b Panorama I, Chocorua, N. H. NP
4.35b “Looking Through The Barn” [View to mountain from inside barn, boy feeding hens to one side] Chocorua, N. H., September 1903 NP
4.36a Twitchell Bonfire [25] NP
4.36.1a Twitchell Bonfire [P-1.61] 1896 P
4.37a Bonfire [32] Chocorua, N.H., May 1901 NP
4.38b [Twitchell’s?] Brush Fire Chocorua, N.H., September [?] NP
Subseries E. People
5.001a The Ladies Bellier? from “The Amazon” [P-1.34] December 1900 P
5.002b The Twins Playing Cards [P-1.6] [older women in front of fireplace] Canton, Mass., 22 February 1903 NP
5.003b Canton Twins [P-1.7] NP
5.004b Canton Twins [P-1.8] NP
5.004.1b Canton Twins [P-1.4] NP
5.004.2b Canton Twins [P-1.5] NP
5.005a Chapman [P-1.56] 1898 P
5.006a Chapman [P-1.57] 1898 P
5.007a Chapman [P-1.58] 1898 P
5.008b Helen Crothers in her [?] [woman in plaid dress in attic doorway] [3 July 1910?] NP
5.009b Mr. [Samuel McChord?] Crothers in his Study Chocorua, N. H., 1909 NP
5.010b Mr. [Samuel McChord?] Crothers in his Study II Chocorua, N. H., [1909?] NP
5.011a Betty Devens [P-1.38] 1897 P
5.012a Betty Devens [P-1.39] 1897 P
5.013b Betty and Geraldine [Dropper?] P-1.28] NP
5.014b The Droppers [P-1.29] NP
5.015b [another study of the Droppers] [P-1.30] NP
5.016a S[arah] McK[eane] Folsom (head looking down) [P-1.35] March 1898 P
5.017a S[arah] McK[eane] Folsom (head) [P-1.36] “scratched” March 1898 P
5.018a S[arah] McK[eane] Folsom [P-1.37] March 1898 P
5.019a A. L. G. (intensified) [P-1.67] P
5.020a A. L. G. and Rick [P-1.68] P
5.021a A. L. G. (sitting down) [P-1.69] P
5.022a A. L. G. (intensified) [P-1.70] P
5.023a A. L. G. [P-1.71] P
5.025a M. H., & Prince [P-1.40] P
5.026a Helen & Carl (standing up) [P-1.42] P
5.027a Helen & Carl (sitting down) [P-1.43] P
5.028a E. H. Horton [P-1.59] 1896 P
5.029a E. H. Horton [P-1.60] 1898 P
5.030a Lydiard Horton, reading, with laurel wreath [P-1.44] [February 1898] P
5.031a Lydiard Horton with laurel wreath [P-1.45] February 1898 P
5.032a Lydiard Horton, reading, with white fillet [P-1.46] [February 1898] P
5.033a Lydiard Horton, as a saint [P-1.47] [February 1898] P
5.034a Lydiard Horton, with wreath and book [P-1.48] February 1898 P
5.035a Lydiard Horton, with ruff collar [P-1.49] February 1898 P
5.036a Lydiard Horton, with ruff collar (no. 2) [P-1.50] [February 1898] P
5.037a Lois? in gig [P-1.62] [Lois Lilley Howe?] Westport P
5.037.1a [Lois Lilley Howe?] [taken by?] R. P. Rogers [P-1.32] 1898 P
5.037.2a [Lois Lilley Howe?] [taken by?] E. H. Horton [P-1.33] 1896 P
5.038b Helen Twitchell Feeding Hens Chocorua, N. H., 14 September 1906 NP
5.039b Helen Twitchell Feeding Hens Chocorua, N. H., 14 September 1906 NP
5.040b Mr. [Liberty] sawing wood March 1905 NP
5.041b Mr. [Liberty] and the wheelbarrow Chocorua, N. H., March 1905 NP
5.042b Potters and Dog—small [P-1.24] Cambridge, Mass., 7 September 1912 NP
5.043 Number Not Used NP
5.044b The Whole Potter Family [P-1.25] Cambridge, Mass., 14 September 1912 NP
5.045b Potters and Dog—bad [P-1.26] Cambridge, Mass., 7 September 1912 NP
5.046a Mr. [Alfred C.?] Potter and Delano [P-1.51] October 1897 P
5.047a Mr. Potter and Delano (Delano with a cap) [P-1.52] October 1897 P
5.048a Betty and Delano Potter (Delano in carriage) (no. 2) [P-1.53] October 1897 P
5.049b [Betty Potter and Dog on Steps] [P-1.19] Cambridge, Mass., 14 September 1912 NP
5.050b Betty Potter and Dog on Steps [P-1.22] Cambridge, Mass., 7 September 1912 NP
5.051b Betty Potter and Dog on Steps II [P-1.21] Sitting Down Cambridge, Mass., 14 September 1912 NP
5.052b Betty Potter and Dog on Steps III [P-1.20] “wrong side of plate” Cambridge, Mass., 14 September 1912 NP
5.053a Betty and Delano Potter (Delano in carriage) [P-1.54] October 1897 P
5.054b Delano Potter and Dog on Steps [P-1.27] Cambridge, Mass., 7 September 1912 NP
5.055b Edith, Alfred and Delano Potter [P-1.18] (outdoor group portrait with dog) Cambridge, Mass., 7 September 1912 NP
5.056b Edith, Alfred and Delano Potter and Dog—large [P-1.23] Cambridge, Mass., 7 September 1912 NP
5.058a Mrs. J. B. Russell, at window [P-1.31] Cambridge, Mass. — 10 November 1901 P
5.059b Mrs. J. B. Russell [profile] [P-1.1] Cambridge, Mass.? NP
5.060b Mrs. J. B. Russell [three-quarter figure] [P-1.2] Cambridge, Mass. NP
5.061b Mrs. J. B. Russell [playing with cat] [P-1.3] Cambridge, Mass. NP
5.063b [Twitchell? Woman Feeding Chickens] NP
5.064b [Twitchell? Woman and Three Children] Chocorua, N. H. NP
5.065a Helen and Margaret Twitchell [28] NP
5.066a Helen and Roger Twitchell [30] NP
5.067a Helen and Margaret Twitchell by the Fire [38] [Two children, one holding doll, look into fireplace] Chocorua, N.H., September 1900 NP
5.068b Helen Twitchell Feeding Hens—upright Chocorua, N. H., 13 September 1906 NP
5.069b Helen Twitchell Feeding Hens Chocorua, N. H., 8 September 1906 NP
5.070b Helen Twitchell Feeding Hens Chocorua, N. H., 8 September 1906 NP
5.071b Helen Twitchell Feeding Hens Chocorua, N. H., 14 September 1906 NP
5.072a Margaret, Helen and Roger Twitchell [23] “My lantern slide” NP
5.073a Margaret, Helen and Roger Twitchell [34] 10 December 1898 NP
5.074a Margaret Twitchell and Cat [49] [Seated girl, stroking cat in lap] Chocorua, N.H., September 1900 NP
5.075a Paul, Helen, Roger Twitchell, and Rooster [22] “My lantern slides” NP
5.076a Paul, Helen, and Roger Twitchell and Mary [29] “My lantern slide” [three seated children and older woman] NP
5.077a Roger Twitchell [24] NP
5.078a Roger Twitchell in his Crib [31] “Flashlight” 9 November 1898 NP
5.079a Roger Twitchell on his Sled—“best” [33] 10 November 1898 NP
5.080a Roger Twitchell on his Sled—[35] 10 December 1898 NP
5.081a Roger Twitchell in Woods [36] [Naked boy in woods] “streaky” Chocorua, N.H., September 1900 NP
5.082a Roger Twitchell in Woods—“worst” [37] [Naked boy in woods] Chocorua, N.H., September 1900 NP
5.083a Roger Twitchell in Boat [39] [Naked boy in row boat] Chocorua, N.H., September 1900 NP
5.084a Roger Twitchell in Woods [40] [Naked boy in woods] Chocorua, N.H., September 1900 NP
5.085a Roger Twitchell in Woods [41] [Naked boy in woods] Chocorua, N.H., September 1900 NP
5.086b Roger Twitchell and Rain Barrel Chocorua, N. H., 13 September 1906 NP
5.087b Roger Twitchell and Paul Wainwright by Campfire I Chocorua, N. H., 5 September 1906 NP
5.088b Roger Twitchell and Paul Wainwright by Campfire [II] Chocorua, N. H., 5 September 1906 NP
5.089b Roger Twitchell and Paul Wainwright by Campfire [III] [Chocorua, N. H., 5 September 1906] NP
5.090a E. F. W. and children [P-1.64] Salem, 21 May 1899 P
5.091a E. F. W. and children [P-1.65] Salem, 21 May 1899 P
5.092a E. F. W. and children [P-1.66] Salem, 21 May 1899 P
5.093b Mr. Watson and Two Babies 3 [P-1.9] Cambridge, Mass., 6 December 1903 NP
5.094b Mr. Watson and Two Babies 4 [P-1.10] Cambridge, Mass., 6 December 1903 NP
5.095b Mr. Watson and Two Babies 1 [P-1.11] Cambridge, Mass., 6 December 1903 NP
5.096b Mr. Watson and Two Babies 2 [P-1.12] Cambridge, Mass., 6 December 1903 NP
5.096.1b Mr. Watson and His Babies [P-1.13] NP
5.097b Mr. Watson and Eleanor [P-1.14] NP
5.098b Mr. Watson and Eleanor [P-1.15] NP
5.099b Mr. Watson and Eleanor [P-1.16] NP
5.100b Mr. Watson and Eleanor [P-1.17] NP
5.101b Paul Wainwright playing mandolin Chocorua, N. H., 14 September 1906 NP
5.102b Paul [Wainwright] in Barn [Man sawing wood in doorway] [Chocorua, N. H.?] NP
5.103b Paul [Wainwright?] Chocorua, N. H., 14 September [1906?] NP
5.104a Fourth of July gathering [P-1.63] Brookline, 4 July 1897 P
5.105a “Going to the Spring” [26] [Girls with pails, Mt. Chocorua in background] Chocorua, N.H., 1900 September NP
5.106a 2.27 “Coming from the Spring” [27] [Girls with pails, Mt. Chocorua in background] Chocorua, N.H., 1900 September NP
5.107b Unidentified Woman [Betty Devens?] NP

Series II. Prints

The item list for this series is the same as that for corresponding negatives in Series I above. The abbreviations P and NP are used to indicate whether a “Print” or “No Print” exists for the negative. Prints are filed in the archival binder box first by size (a,b,c), and then by number.

Series III. Sleeve Notes
Box 5

The item list for this series is the same as that for the corresponding negatives in Series I. Sleeve notes are filed in order by control number. Sleeve notes exist for most, but not all, negatives. Notes by Howe herself were generally written on old fashioned, pre-printed Kraft paper envelopes, and are distinguishable by her florid script. Later notations made by others were generally on newer, glassine envelopes. A sample of the best-preserved original sleeves was kept, but most were too brittle for preservation and discarded after photocopying.


The Ethereal Embossed Pages of a 19th-Century Atlas for the Blind

In the 1830s, Samuel Gridley Howe, an educator of the blind and visually impaired, developed an embossed alphabet known as Boston Line Type. This atlas, printed in 1837, made use of this type to present geographical information for students at the New England Institution for Education of the Blind (later known as the Perkins School for the Blind).

Howe invented Boston Line Type at around the same time that Louis Braille, a blind student in Paris, created the more well-known system of raised dots that bears his name. Boston Line is a Roman alphabet, with simplified angles and without capital letters.

Students at the Perkins School for the Blind used Boston Line until the turn of the 20 th century. Boston Line had some drawbacks: the Perkins School’s museum notes that “many of the school’s students found it difficult to read.”

Technological limitations also made the Boston Line alphabet an unsatisfactory tool for writing. Even before the development of Braille writing machines in the late 19 th century, students could write in Braille using just a stylus and a slate the Boston Line required a customized printing press.


Louis McHenry Howe

Louis McHenry Howe (January 14, 1871 – April 18, 1936) was an American reporter for the New York Herald best known for acting as an early political advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Born to a wealthy family in Indianapolis, Indiana, Howe was a small, sickly, and asthmatic child. The family moved to Saratoga, New York, after serious financial losses, and Howe became a journalist with a small paper that his father purchased. Howe married Grace Hartley and spent the next decade freelancing for the New York Herald and working various jobs. He was assigned to cover the New York state legislature in 1906, and soon became a political operative for Thomas Mott Osborne, a Democratic opponent of the Tammany Hall political machine.

After Osborne fired Howe in 1909, Howe attached himself to rising Democratic star Franklin D. Roosevelt, with whom he would work for the rest of his life. Howe oversaw Roosevelt's campaign for the New York State Senate, worked with him in the Navy Department, and acted as an advisor and campaign manager during Roosevelt's 1920 vice presidential run. After Roosevelt contracted polio in 1921, resulting in partial paralysis, Howe became Roosevelt's public representative, keeping his political career alive during his recovery. He arranged Roosevelt's 1924 "Happy Warrior" convention speech that returned him to the public eye, and helped to run Roosevelt's narrowly successful 1928 campaign to become Governor of New York. Howe then spent the next four years laying the groundwork for Roosevelt's landslide 1932 presidential victory. Named Roosevelt's secretary, Howe helped the president to shape the early programs of the New Deal, particularly the Civilian Conservation Corps. Howe grew ill shortly after Roosevelt's election, and died before the end of his first term.

Howe also acted as a political advisor to Franklin's wife Eleanor, whom he encouraged to take an active role in politics, introducing her to women's groups and coaching her in public speaking. Eleanor later called Howe one of the most influential people in her life. Franklin Roosevelt biographer Jean Edward Smith called Howe "a backroom man without equal in Democratic politics", and Roosevelt publicly credited Howe and James Farley for his first election to the presidency in 1932.


SHEBOYGAN HISTORY

LOUIS K. HOWE, editor and proprietor of the Sheboygan Herald, is a native of New Hampshire, and was born in Hillsborough County, of that State, June 7, 1850. He is a son of James and Nancy (Witt) Howe, both natives of the old Granite State.

The subject of this sketch was reared and educated in his native State. He was fitted for college at Appleton Academy, New Ipswich, after which he took a course at Dartmouth College. On completing his college course, he was engaged in teaching in the East until 1874, when he came to Wisconsin, settling in Plymouth, Sheboygan County, where he again taught. On the 6th of September, 1879, he established the Plymouth Sun, which he conducted three years. In November of 1882, he moved to Sheboygan and purchased the Sheboygan Herald, the oldest paper in the county, or rather he bought the good-will of its patrons and one font of type, and consolidated the two, naming the new paper The Sun and Herald. After conducting it for two years under that name, he changed it to its present name, The Herald, enlarging it to a seven-column quarto. He has given the paper a boom, raising its circulation from a limited and insignificant list to two thousand, thus giving it the largest circulation of any English paper in the county. The facilities of the Herald office for fine job work are unsurpassed in the county, and a large patronage in that direction has been secured. Electric power is used, and the office affords employment to from ten to fifteen hands.

Mr. Howe has been twice married. First in New Hampshire in 1874 to Miss Mary C. Poole, who died September 9, 1877, leaving one child, a son, Winfred C., who was born December 31, 1876. Again, on the 20th of November, 1878, Mr. Howe was married in Plymouth to Miss Elizabeth Eckersley. Mrs. Howe was born in Plymouth, Wis., and is a daughter of James and Amelia Eckersley. Her parents were early settlers in Plymouth and still reside at that place. Mrs. Howe aids her husband in the editorial management of the Herald, and is entitled to a fair share of credit for the marked success enjoyed by that popular journal.


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